The International Biological Programme (IPB), a world-wide plan of coordinated
research on the biological basis of productivity and human welfare, covered terrestrial
and aquatic environments, and ran for almost a decade from 1964. Recognising
the need for guidance in methodology, the IBP arranged for the publication of a series
of handbooks on techniques with the aim of achieving comparability of results
all over theworld. One of these handbooks dealt with the study of marine benthos.
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define variables sampling and understand when it is used in the audit, understand the basic process underlying monetary unit sampling (MUS) and when to use it, identify the factors affecting the size of an MUS sample and calculate the sample size for an MUS application,...
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Define variables sampling and understand when it is used in the audit, understand the basic process underlying monetary unit sampling (MUS) and when to use it, identify the factors affecting the size of an MUS sample and calculate the sample size for an MUS application.
The survey methodology is that used for the Gallup World Poll. Surveys are conducted
face to face in economies where telephone coverage represents less than 80 percent of
In most economies the fieldwork is completed in two to four weeks. In
economies where face-to-face surveys are conducted, the first stage of sampling is the
identification of primary sampling units, consisting of clusters of households. The pri-
mary sampling units are stratified by population size, geography, or both, and clustering
is achieved through one or more stages of sampling.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Sample size and power estimation for studies with health related quality of life outcomes: a comparison of four methods using the SF-36
Stephen J Walters*
Address: Sheffield Health Economics Group, School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent St, Sheffield, United Kingdom, S1 4DA Email: Stephen J Walters* - firstname.lastname@example.org * Corresponding author
Published: 25 May 2004 Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2004, 2:26 This article is available from: http://www.hqlo.
The controls included in the ordered probits are chosen to match those used by CSW, and
include age and year dummies, indicators for the child’s sex and ethnicity, the logarithm of
family size, the age of each of the parents, and indicators for whether the mother and father were
absent from the household.
We do not know if CSW weighted their regressions using the
sampling weights provided in the survey. All the results we show use weights, although their use
makes very little difference to any of the estimates.
Panel A contains results from the HSE. We first...
The tables used in the main body of the following discus-
sion are based on the entire sample, comprising 1,468 good
loans and 1,297 bad loans. But in these summary tabulations,
which represent a combination of the samples of all banks,
the separate distributions of good and of bad loans for each
bank have been so weighted that the combined sample may
be considered to comprise 1,294 good loans and the same
number of bad loans.