The recognition that osteoporosis is a huge public health problem came
recently, but it rapidly stimulated the emergence of a major new province in
biology and medicine. Professional meetings devoted to bone metabolism
and metabolic bone disorders have blossomed, new journals have emerged,
and the pioneering careers of dedicated early investigators have inspired the
vigor of a new generation of scientists.
These are exciting times for the diverse group of surgeons who perform craniomaxillofacial surgery.
The AO/ASIF (Swiss Association of Internal Fixation) has played a crucial role in the growth of
this field through its leadership in research, teaching, and cooperation with industry. As clinicians
fascinated by the extraordinary progress in the field, the goal is to advance this new knowledge
by teaching AO/ASIF courses and writing textbooks that supplement these courses and related
Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is established as an anabolic factor
that can induce skeletal muscle growth by activating the phosphoinosi-tide 3-kinase⁄Akt⁄mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.
Although this signaling pathway has been the subject of much study, the
molecular mechanisms linking IGF-1 binding to mTOR activation remain
poorly defined in muscle.
Chapter 11 provides knowledge of skeletal system. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Tissues of the skeletal system, bone growth and repair, bones of the skeleton, articulations, homeostasis.
Chapter 6: Bones and skeletal tissues (part b) provides knowledge of bone development, bone homeostasis, homeostatic imbalances of bone and developmental aspects of bones. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification, describe the process of long bone growth that occurs at the epiphyseal plates,...and other contents.
Alex Duckworth, MS4
What is a Salter-Harris fracture?
Fracture through growth plate in a pediatric patient 35 % of skeletal injuries in patients aged 10-15 involve growth plate Often due to trauma, usually sports-related or fall Complain of point tenderness around fracture site Soft-tissue swelling on physical exam
Anatomy of Long Bones
Epiphysis distal to the physis (growth plate) Metaphysis on opposite side of physis from epiphysis Diaphysis is long shaft beyond metaphysis
Normal Pediatric Long Bone
eMedicine – Salter-Harris Fractures : Article by William Moor...
Morphogenesis, growth, and modeling of the skeletal system are dynamic processes, and the skeleton,
once formed, is managed dynamically through remodeling. Attempts at consensus definitions
and scripts for such processes will provoke heated debate, especially among the kinship of brothers
who revere the skeleton. A review chapter of the likes conceived herein will provide grist for debate.
This is good.
Considerable information is available in the literature on bone morphogenesis, growth, modeling,
Recurrent missense fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations
have been ascribed to skeletal dysplasias of variable severity including the
lethal neonatal thanatophoric dysplasia types I (TDI) and II (TDII). To
elucidate the role of activating mutations causing TDI on receptor traffick-ing and endocytosis, a series of four mutants located in different domains
of the receptor were generated and transiently expressed.
Calpains are intracellular Ca
-regulated cysteine pro-teases which mediate regulatory cleavage of specific
substrates. They cover a broad range of physiological
functions including proteolysis of molecules involved
in cytoskeletal organization, the cell cycle, signal trans-duction, apoptosis, and protein renewal during growth
and tissue regeneration. Originally found in mamma-lian skeletal muscle then in numerous organisms inclu-ding protists and plants, their expression is ubiquitous