Skin types

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  • Hispanic skin care, like the skin care for any “race” of people is not a one size fits all proposition. There is no “latina skin type”. Latina skin varies widely and your needs will be unique. Like African Americans, Latinas skin color and type varies. However, there are some useful generalities when it comes to the care of brown skin. Darker skinned Hispanics skin care will be very similar to the needs of African Americans. Treasured Locks is committed to helping people with all skin types. But, our particular focus is on African American and Hispanic skin and hair care needs....

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Cosmetic dermatology - Principles and practice" presents the following contents: Basic concepts of skin science (basic science of the epidermis, fat and the subcutaneous layer, immunology of the skin, photoaging,...), skin types, specific skin problems,...

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  • Telangiectasias (Table 54-8) In order to distinguish the various types of telangiectasias, it is important to examine the shape and configuration of the dilated blood vessels. Linear telangiectasias are seen on the face of patients with actinically damaged skin and acne rosacea, and they are found on the legs of patients with venous hypertension and essential telangiectasia. Patients with an unusual form of mastocytosis (telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans) and the carcinoid syndrome (see "Acne," above) also have linear telangiectasias.

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  • Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.

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  • Several metabolic disorders are associated with blister formation, including diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and porphyria. Local hypoxia secondary to decreased cutaneous blood flow can also produce blisters, which explains the presence of bullae over pressure points in comatose patients (coma bullae). In diabetes mellitus, tense bullae with clear viscous fluid arise on normal skin. The lesions can be as large as 6 cm in diameter and are located on the distal extremities. There are several types of porphyria, but the most common form with cutaneous findings is PCT.

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  • Papulonodular Skin Lesions (Table 54-15) In the papulonodular diseases, the lesions are elevated above the surface of the skin and may coalesce to form plaques. The location, consistency, and color of the lesions are the keys to their diagnosis; this section is organized on the basis of color. Table 54-15 Papulonodular Skin Lesions According to Color Groups I. White A. Calcinosis cutis II. Skin-colored A. Rheumatoid nodules B. Neurofibromas (von Recklinghausen's disease) C. Angiofibromas (tuberous sclerosis, MEN syndrome, type 1) D. Neuromas (MEN syndrome, type 2b) E.

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  • Clinical Characteristics There are four types of cutaneous melanoma (Table 83-2). In three of these—superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma—the lesion has a period of superficial (so-called radial) growth during which it increases in size but does not penetrate deeply. It is during this period that the melanoma is most capable of being cured by surgical excision. The fourth type—nodular melanoma—does not have a recognizable radial growth phase and usually presents as a deeply invasive lesion, capable of early metastasis.

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  • Lupus Erythematosus The cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus (LE) (Chap. 313) can be divided into acute, subacute, and chronic types. Acute cutaneous LE is characterized by erythema of the nose and malar eminences in a "butterfly" distribution (Fig. 55-5). The erythema is often sudden in onset, accompanied by edema and fine scale, and correlated with systemic involvement. Patients may have widespread involvement of the face as well as erythema and scaling of the extensor surfaces of the extremities and upper chest.

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  • Type I antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are usually small, Ala-richa-helical poly-peptides found in right-eyed flounders and certain species of sculpin. These proteins are divided into two distinct subclasses, liver type and skin type, which are encoded by separate gene families. Blood plasma from Atlantic (Liparis atlanticus) and dusky (Liparis gibbus) snailfish contain type I AFPs that are significantly larger than all previously described type I AFPs.

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  • In recent years, the amount of knowledge surrounding the processes of wound healing has significantly increased, resulting in a vast array of therapeutic options. The assortment of preparations currently available may become somewhat perplexing to physicians and medical personnel. We have become aware of the difficulty involved in selecting the most appropriate therapy for a specific type of wound. Our main purpose in writing this book, therefore, is to present a step-by-step algorithmic approach to the treatment of chronic wounds....

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  • Providers who agreed to participate and scheduled an interview were sent a consent form for the study and a baseline questionnaire (on services provided, type of clinical staff employed, and number of WHP clients served) by email or fax to be returned to the interviewers. The phone interviews lasted approximately 20-30 minutes each, were conducted by 2 researchers in order for one to take notes, and were based upon interview guides developed for PPFA providers and non-PPFA providers.

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  • Natural photoprotection is provided by structural proteins in the epidermis, particularly keratins and melanin. The amount of melanin and its distribution in cells is genetically regulated, and individuals of darker complexion (skin types IV–VI) are at decreased risk for the development of acute sunburn and cutaneous malignancy. Other forms of photoprotection include clothing and sunscreens. Clothing constructed of tightly woven sun-protective fabrics, irrespective of color, affords substantial protection. Wide-brimmed hats, long sleeves, and trousers all reduce direct exposure.

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  • Car-sharing can be seen as an effective measure for reducing the burden of automobile traffic on the environment. The automobiles belonging to Swedish car-sharing organizations are often newer and have more satisfactory environmental and safety characteristics than Swedish cars in general. Studies have also shown that a member of an average car-sharing scheme drives only about two-thirds as much as earlier and that a shared car, through being used more effectively, takes the place of some five privately owned cars and as many parking spaces.

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  • Histologic observations support two mechanisms for permanent hair reduction: miniaturization of coarse hair follicles to vellus-like hair follicles, and destruction of the hair follicle with gran- ulomatous degeneration, leaving a fibrotic remnant. Clinically, both of these mechanisms produced reduction in hair. The study design used a fixed set of fluence-pulse-width combinations in each patient, regard- less of skin type. If skin type and color had been matched to appropriate fluences, the inci- dence of side effects could have been reduced. Epidermal damage was seen in 6% of cases.

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  • Treatment should be performed with the highest fluence the skin can tolerate. Studies have shown that the percentage hair loss is fluence-dependent, with higher percentages of hair loss at higher fluences. Each skin type has its own threshold fluence at which pigmentation changes occur. To mini- mize hypo- or hyperpigmentation, lower fluences than those suggested above should be used while gaining clinical experience. With multiple pulsing the incidence of pigment changes increases without an increase in efficacy. For this reason, double and triple pulsing are not recommended.

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  • According to the most recent updates, retroviral and lentiviral vectors represent 23% of all the vector types and 33% of the viral vectors used in Gene Therapy clinical trials. Moreover, retroviral vectors are currently the blockbuster vectors for the treatment of monogenic and infectious diseases and gene marking clinical trials (Edelstein 2010). Retroviruses are double stranded RNA enveloped viruses mainly characterized by the ability to “reverse-transcribe” their genome from RNA to DNA.

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  • While almost any type of security can be used in a repo, funds prefer to have U.S. Treasury or other government obligations as the collateral for most of their transactions. For added security, the collateral must equal at least 102 percent of the loan amount. 7 The transaction is called a repurchase agreement because the securities are actually sold to the lender or investor at the beginning of the period of the loan; the borrower agrees to repurchase the securities at the end of the loan term, usually at the same price.

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  • Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory–pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair and skin. WS type 4 (WS4), a subtype of WS, is characterized by the presence of the aganglionic megacolon and is associ-

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  • Agency securities. Agency securities are the obligations of federal gov- ernment agencies or government-sponsored enterprises. Generally, agency debt offers a slight yield premium over T-bills. Turn back to Chapter 6 for more on agency securities. Commercial paper. Commercial paper, or CP, is issued by corporations (including banks) to finance short-term cash needs. While smaller corpo- rations usually depend on bank loans for this type of funding, larger cor- porations with good credit ratings can access the CP market and often do so.

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  • The National Cancer Guidance Steering Group, as it is now called, was set up soon after the Calman-Hine report was published. It was charged with developing guidance for the implementation of the new policy in NHS services for the common cancers, starting with breast. There was no precedent for this type of document, and apart from the recognition that the guidance should complement existing clinical guidelines, no clear picture as to what the documents should be like, nor clarity about the ground they should cover.

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