Okay, now that you know the basics of the mechanics of sleep. Let’s talk about how
you can use this new knowledge to sleep less, have more powerful sleep, and have
more energy in your life. I have given you the previous “scientific” information here
because I wanted you to have a knowledge base with the “right” information.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
A subset of patients presenting with either insomnia or hypersomnia may have a disorder of sleep timing rather than sleep generation. Disorders of sleep timing can be either organic (i.e., due to an intrinsic defect in the circadian pacemaker or its input from entraining stimuli) or environmental (i.e., due to a disruption of exposure to entraining stimuli from the environment). Regardless of etiology, the symptoms reflect the influence of the underlying circadian pacemaker on sleep-wake function.
The history of sleep medicine and sleep research can be
summarized as a history of remarkable progress and, at
the same time, a history of remarkable ignorance. Since
the publication of the second edition in 1999 enormous
progress has been made in all aspects of sleep science
and sleep medicine. I am pleased to see these rapid
advances in sleep medicine and growing awareness about
the importance of sleep and its dysfunction amongst the
public and the profession.
Persistent psychophysiologic insomnia is a behavioral disorder in which patients are preoccupied with a perceived inability to sleep adequately at night. This sleep disorder begins like any other acute insomnia; however, the poor sleep habits and sleep-related anxiety ("insomnia phobia") persist long after the initial incident. Such patients become hyperaroused by their own efforts to sleep or by the sleep environment, and the insomnia becomes a conditioned or learned response.
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Patients with this sensory-motor disorder report an irresistible urge to move the legs, or sometimes the upper extremities, that is often associated with a creepycrawling or aching dysesthesias deep within the affected limbs. For most patients with RLS, the dysesthesias and restlessness are much worse in the evening or night compared to the daytime and frequently interfere with the ability to fall asleep. The symptoms appear with inactivity and are temporarily relieved by movement.
Specific questioning about the occurrence of sleep episodes during normal waking hours, both intentional and unintentional, is necessary to determine the extent of the adverse effects of sleepiness on a patient's daytime function. Specific areas to be addressed include the occurrence of inadvertent sleep episodes while driving or in other safety-related settings, sleepiness while at work or school (and the relationship of sleepiness to work and school performance), and the effect of sleepiness on social and family life.
Shift-Work Disorder: Treatment
Caffeine is frequently used to promote wakefulness. However, it cannot forestall sleep indefinitely, and it does not shield users from sleep-related performance lapses. Postural changes, exercise, and strategic placement of nap opportunities can sometimes temporarily reduce the risk of fatigue-related performance lapses. Properly timed exposure to bright light can facilitate rapid adaptation to night-shift work.
While many techniques (e.g.
Medical Implications of Circadian Rhythmicity
Prominent circadian variations have been reported in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke, the leading causes of death in the United States. Platelet aggregability is increased after arising in the early morning hours, coincident with the peak incidence of these cardiovascular events. A better understanding of the possible role of circadian rhythmicity in the acute destabilization of a chronic condition such as atherosclerotic disease could improve the understanding of the pathophysiology.
Insomnia Associated with Neurologic Disorders
A variety of neurologic diseases result in sleep disruption through both indirect, nonspecific mechanisms (e.g., pain in cervical spondylosis or low back pain) or by impairment of central neural structures involved in the generation and control of sleep itself. For example, dementia from any cause has long been associated with disturbances in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, often characterized by nocturnal wandering and an exacerbation of symptomatology at night (so-called sundowning).
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the ideas, people, and events that have over time have formed the field of psychology. Chapters cover the scientific and humanistic antecedents of psychology as a discipline, theories and systems, influential people, and the important events which shaped the field.
Treatment is justified if it has significantly improved their wellbeing and function. A combination of medication with psychological techniques is likely to be most beneficial, especially for resistant cases.
Humans spend about a third of the time asleep but why we sleep is not yet fully understood. Sleep is a state of inactivity accompanied by loss of awareness and a markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli.
Unrecognised sleep-related generalised epileptic seizures disturb sleep achritecture as they
cause arousals. Generalized epileptic seizures reduce total sleep time and elongate latency to
REM sleep. Amount of NREM1 and NREM2 stages may be extended (Foldvary-Schaefer,
2002). Partial epileptic seizures during sleep do not disrupt night sleep markedly, only in
case of their secondary generalization (Dasheiff, 2003). Epileptic seizures during daytime
influence night sleep too. They reduce REM sleep, what may be cause of fatigue in
postparoxysmal period (Bazil, Castro & Walczak, 2000).
Excessive daytime sleepiness is often result of self-imposed sleep deprivation espetially in
young people. More often it is effect of disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian
rhytms. It may be side effect of many often-used drugs, for example hypnotics or alcohol.
Nocturnal sleep disturbances, which lead to EDS, should be carefully assessed and treated.
In several conditions EDS is not an outcome of night-sleep loss and should be considered as
primary hypersomnia of central origin.
AS FA R B A C K A S I C A N R E M E M B E R , I’ve lived and died on every game
day. I don’t think I can ever recall a time when football—in one
form or another—didn’t have a major influence on everything I
thought, everything I said, everything I did.
High school. College. Pro. Our family was moving around
with each coaching job my dad held at all three levels. Or I was
playing quarterback in high school. Or I was hoping to see the
field as a college quarterback. Or I was changing coaching jobs
myself in a...
Physiology of Sleep and Wakefulness Most adults sleep 7–8 h per night, although the timing, duration, and internal structure of sleep vary among healthy individuals and as a function of age. At the extremes, infants and the elderly have frequent interruptions of sleep. In the United States, adults of intermediate age tend to have one consolidated sleep episode per day, although in some cultures sleep may be divided into a midafternoon nap and a shortened night sleep.
During our first visit, Sara seemed distracted. She was a pleasant, middleaged
woman who had never sought care from a psychiatrist. Several months earlier
she had begun to feel tired and irritable; she thought she had the flu. When her 25-
year-old son called to say that he was getting a divorce, she began to cry. “I worried I
had done something to break up his marriage,” she told me, dabbing at her eyes. “I
felt so guilty.” Over the following months she became depressed and so preoccupied
that she often forgot to pay bills.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Good night, sleep tight: the time is ripe for critical care providers to wake up and focus on sleep...
THERE was a ripple of chimes through the frosty air as Catherine Murchison turned from King's Walk into
Lombard Street, and saw the moon shining white and clear between the black parapets and chimney-stacks of
the old houses. St. Antonia's steeple was giving the hour of three, and a babel of lesser tongues answered from
the silence of the sleeping town. Hoar-frost glittered on the cypresses that stood in a garden bounding the
road, and the roofs were like silver under the hard, moonlit sky.
Idioms are fun and useful expressions that usually cannot be understood by defining the separate words. For example, if your host mother says, "I think it's time to hit the hay", she means, "I think it's bed-time"! You would not be able to understand her by looking up the words hit and hay. Like phrasal verbs, these expressions need to be memorized as a whole. Try visualizing them or drawing pictures when you study them. For example, draw a picture of a cow sleeping in some hay. The idiom out of the blue means "unexpectedly". Your teacher or homestay...