Okay, now that you know the basics of the mechanics of sleep. Let’s talk about how
you can use this new knowledge to sleep less, have more powerful sleep, and have
more energy in your life. I have given you the previous “scientific” information here
because I wanted you to have a knowledge base with the “right” information.
The history of sleep medicine and sleep research can be
summarized as a history of remarkable progress and, at
the same time, a history of remarkable ignorance. Since
the publication of the second edition in 1999 enormous
progress has been made in all aspects of sleep science
and sleep medicine. I am pleased to see these rapid
advances in sleep medicine and growing awareness about
the importance of sleep and its dysfunction amongst the
public and the profession.
From the emergence of clinical sleep medicine marked by the establishment of the
harbinger Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic in the mid 1970s, offspring sleep disorders
clinics and centers have grown exponentially with the recognition of the unmet
diagnostic and treatment needs of the reservoir of patients suffering from symptoms
of what are now recognized and classified as the nosology of human sleep
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 28. Sleep Disorders
Sleep Disorders: Introduction Disturbed sleep is among the most frequent health complaints physicians encounter. More than one-half of adults in the United States experience at least intermittent sleep disturbances.
For most, it is an occasional night of poor sleep or daytime sleepiness. However, the Institute of Medicine estimates that 50–70 million Americans suffer from a chronic disorder of sleep and wakefulness, which can lead to serious impairment of daytime functioning.
Stages of REM sleep (solid bars), the four stages of NREM sleep, and wakefulness over the course of the entire night for representative young and older adult men. Characteristic features of sleep in older people include reduction of slow-wave sleep, frequent spontaneous awakenings, early sleep onset, and early morning awakening. (From the Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.)
Sleepless in suburbia, the sleep-deprivation survival guide, the science of sleep, winning at sleep roulette, bedroom politics where will your baby sleep, the real-world guide to solving your baby’s sleep problems is the main content of the book "Sleep solutions for your baby, toddler and preschooler". Invite you to consult the text book for more documents serving the academic needs and research.
Physiology of Circadian Rhythmicity
The sleep-wake cycle is the most evident of the many 24-h rhythms in humans. Prominent daily variations also occur in endocrine, thermoregulatory, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, and neurobehavioral functions. At the molecular level, endogenous circadian rhythmicity is driven by self-sustaining transcriptional/translational feedback loops (Fig. 28-2). In evaluating a daily variation in humans, it is important to distinguish between those rhythmic components passively evoked by periodic environmental or behavioral changes (e.g.
Disorders of Sleep and Wakefulness
Approach to the Patient: Sleep Disorders
Patients may seek help from a physician because of one of several symptoms: (1) an acute or chronic inability to initiate or maintain sleep adequately at night (insomnia); (2) chronic fatigue, sleepiness, or tiredness during the day; or (3) a behavioral manifestation associated with sleep itself. Complaints of insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness should be approached as symptoms (much like fever or pain) of underlying disorders.
Evaluation of Insomnia
Insomnia is the complaint of inadequate sleep; it can be classified according to the nature of sleep disruption and the duration of the complaint. Insomnia is subdivided into difficulty falling asleep (sleep onset insomnia), frequent or sustained awakenings (sleep maintenance insomnia), early morning awakenings (sleep offset insomnia), or persistent sleepiness/fatigue despite sleep of adequate duration (nonrestorative sleep). Similarly, the duration of the symptom influences diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
Persistent psychophysiologic insomnia is a behavioral disorder in which patients are preoccupied with a perceived inability to sleep adequately at night. This sleep disorder begins like any other acute insomnia; however, the poor sleep habits and sleep-related anxiety ("insomnia phobia") persist long after the initial incident. Such patients become hyperaroused by their own efforts to sleep or by the sleep environment, and the insomnia becomes a conditioned or learned response.
Specific questioning about the occurrence of sleep episodes during normal waking hours, both intentional and unintentional, is necessary to determine the extent of the adverse effects of sleepiness on a patient's daytime function. Specific areas to be addressed include the occurrence of inadvertent sleep episodes while driving or in other safety-related settings, sleepiness while at work or school (and the relationship of sleepiness to work and school performance), and the effect of sleepiness on social and family life.
The term parasomnia refers to abnormal behaviors or experiences that arise from or occur during sleep. A continuum of parasomnias arise from NREM sleep, from brief confusional arousals to sleepwalking and night terrors. The presenting complaint is usually related to the behavior itself, but the parasomnias can disturb sleep continuity or lead to mild impairments in daytime alertness. Two main parasomnias occur in REM sleep: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which will be described below, and nightmare disorder.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
A subset of patients presenting with either insomnia or hypersomnia may have a disorder of sleep timing rather than sleep generation. Disorders of sleep timing can be either organic (i.e., due to an intrinsic defect in the circadian pacemaker or its input from entraining stimuli) or environmental (i.e., due to a disruption of exposure to entraining stimuli from the environment). Regardless of etiology, the symptoms reflect the influence of the underlying circadian pacemaker on sleep-wake function.
Shift-Work Disorder: Treatment
Caffeine is frequently used to promote wakefulness. However, it cannot forestall sleep indefinitely, and it does not shield users from sleep-related performance lapses. Postural changes, exercise, and strategic placement of nap opportunities can sometimes temporarily reduce the risk of fatigue-related performance lapses. Properly timed exposure to bright light can facilitate rapid adaptation to night-shift work.
While many techniques (e.g.
Đánh thức PC từ chế độ Sleep một cách tự động
.Khi máy tính đang ở chế độ Sleep, bạn phải nhấn một nút bất kỳ để “đánh thức” hệ thống. Nhưng, ta cũng có thể cài đặt thời gian để PC được đánh thức tự động. Điều này đặc biệt hữu dụng nếu như bạn muốn đánh thức PC để tải dữ liệu vào những giờ không cao điểm hay bắt đầu các hành động (action) trước khi thức dậy vào buổi sáng mà không cần để máy chạy cả đêm.
Restart, Shutdown hoặc Sleep trong Windows 8 Khá nhiều người sử dụng Windows 8 gặp khó khăn trong việc tắt, khởi động lại, hoặc đặt hệ thống vào trạng thái Sleep. Cách đây không lâu, Quản Trị Mạng đã giới thiệu với các bạn danh sách các phím tắt cơ bản trong Windows 8, còn trong bài viết lần này, chúng tôi sẽ hướng dẫn một số cách đơn giản để thực hiện những thao tác trên với máy PC và tablet sử dụng Windows 8.
This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at a work-
shop entitled Sleep Needs, Patterns, and Difficulties of Adolescents, held
on September 22, 1999. The workshop was organized by the Board on
Children, Youth, and Families and the Forum on Adolescence of the Na-
tional Research Council and Institute of Medicine, with funding from the
Carnegie Corporation of New York and the National Institute on Child
Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Hu-
Windows 7 cung cấp một số tùy chọn để bảo tồn năng lượng khi bạn không sử dụng máy tính. Các tùy chọn này (bao gồm Sleep, Hibernate và Hybrid Sleep) là hữu ích nếu bạn đang dùng laptop.
Chế độ Sleep (ngủ)
Chế độ Sleep là trạng thái tiết kiệm năng lượng tương tự như tạm dừng một bộ phim DVD. Tất cả các hành động trên máy tính được dừng lại, bất kỳ tài liệu và ứng dụng đang mở nào đều được đặt vào bộ nhớ.
Đại đa số máy tính hiện nay đều có 3 chế độ Shutdown, Sleep, Hibernate để tạm dừng hoạt động. Đối với PC thì không có sự khác biệt gì nhiều, nhưng với Laptop việc tiết kiệm điện năng luôn được chú ý, bởi vậy việc lựa chọn chế độ nào cho laptop của bạn sẽ tối ưu nhất.