So2 emission

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  • As recently as the late 1970’s air emissions in Europe and the USA were terribly high. For instance, in 1978 sulfur dioxide (SO2)-emissions in Europe stood at 70 million tons (Figure 1), almost three times higher than current Chinese emissions. Not only were emissions terribly high, but any impartial observer of the future seen from the perspective of 1978, basing his views on recent trends in European SO2-emissions from 1945-1978, would have had to admit that realistically, emissions would continue to grow.

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  • Geoscience is the scientific field of science covering all related disciplines dealing with Earth and its systems. The scientific field includes geology, physical geography, geophysics, geodesy, soil science, oceanography, hydrology, glaciology and atmospheric sciences. New Achievements in Geoscience is a comprehensive, up-todate resource for academic researchers in geophysics, environmental science, earth science, natural resource managements and their related support fields. This book attempts to highlight issues dealing with geophysical and earth sciences.

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  • The aimof this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the impact of total population size and other demographic factors on air pollution emissions and to correct the weaknesses outlined above. We build on the papers by Dietz and Rosa (1997), Shi (2003) and York et al. (2003a, b) and improve on their studies in a number of ways. First, whereas these three studies examine only CO2 and energy use,we extend the analysis to sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, a pollutant with very different properties to CO2 and hence potentially pos- sessing a very different relationship with population.

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  • Physical damage functions relating health (mortality and morbidity) to air pollution levels have been estimated over a number of years in different countries. Although the net effect of pollutants on health is unclear, the Committee of the Medical Effects of Air Pollution (COMEAP), set up by the UK government has found the strongest link between health and pollution to be for particulates (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) (Department of Health, 1998).

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  • Note that the population share of the economically active age groups now becomes more clearly insignificant. This suggests that its initial statistical significance might be entirely due to its correlation with the urbanization rate as pointed out above and its correlation with the average household size (partial correlation coefficient of )0.58). In other words, it would appear that the urbanization rate and average household size are the demographic factors that really matter.

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  • Secondary aerosol is produced by the oxidation of primary gases (sulphur dioxide, SO2, nitrogen oxides, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs,) to sulphuric and nitric acid, and organic vapours, followed by their gas-particle conversion [26, 77]. Finally, some of these acidic gases can be neutralised by reaction with ammonia gas or calcium carbonate (calcite) forming secondary aerosol (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate).

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  • Stable sulfur isotope ratios in combination with multi-element analysis of lichens were used to examine the influence of emissions from two coal-fired power plants in the Yampa Valley on pollutant deposition in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness of northern Colorado (Jackson et al. 1996). Coal-fired power plants typically emit SO2 with a stable isotope ratio 34 S/ 32 S characteristic of the coal combusted.

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  • Lead is the most pervasive pollutant found in the Blacksmith Institute’s database and is a well-documented health hazard. The Blacksmith Institute has identified over 500 sites polluted by lead, putting an estimated 16 million people at risk. Based on the Blacksmith Institute’s investigations, the top sources contributing to lead pollution, by population, are lead smelting, mining and ore processing, industrial estates and lead-acid battery recycling and manufacturing.

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  • Smaller particulates related to combustion are much more dangerous because they are inhaled deeply into the lungs (Cifuentes et al. 2000, Laden et al. 2000). But note that even if particulate matter from soil is excluded, industry is still a relatively minor source of PM emissions, accounting for just 14% of remaining emissions. Even within the industry subsector, maquiladoras are not the leading source of two of the SNIFF air pollutants—PM and SO2. That distinction belongs to small-scale brick kilns (Table 2).

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