Parental concerns and preferences about school travel are often identified as
important factors, but many studies do not explore or quantify how this factor
influences travel mode choice. This gap in the literature is noteworthy because parental
attitudes may be at least as influential as urban form, especially perceptions about
safety, social interaction, and convenience (McMillan, 2007). Common concerns
include traffic, bullies, and strangers (DiGuiseppi et al, 1998; Hillman et al, 1990;
Kerr et al, 2006; Martin and Carlson, 2005).