Xem 1-20 trên 99 kết quả Social Insurance
  • In this paper we argue that religion and welfare state spending are substitute mecha- nisms that insure individuals against adverse life events. As a result, individuals who are religious will prefer lower levels of social insurance provision than will individuals who are secular, and countries that are more religious on average will have lower levels of welfare state spending.

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  • Vice President/Publisher Associate Publisher Associate Editor Senior Production Editor Executive Marketing Manager Creative Director Senior Designer Production Management Services Editorial Assistant Senior Media Editor Cover Photo Cover Design Bicentennial Logo Design Don Fowley Judith Joseph Brian Kamins Valerie A. Vargas Amy Scholz Harry Nolan Kevin Murphy Aptara, Corp. Sarah Vernon Allison Morris c Brian Baley/Getty Images, Inc. David Levy Richard J. Pacifico This book was set in 10/12 Cheltenham Light by Aptara, Corp. and printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons, Inc.

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  • Estimating the results of legislative proposals to expand health insurance coverage is challenging, partly because there is so little empirical evidence concerning individual people’s responsiveness to health insurance mandates. Since 2007, adults in Massachusetts have been required to have health insurance or face penalties for noncompliance, but it may be too soon to infer the effect of mandates from that experience. Moreover, that experience itself could be unique to Massachusetts.

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  • The social insurance of farmers is covered by section „rural development”. This section falls under the competence of the minister in charge of rural development, who, however, cooperates in matters of social insurance of farmers with the minister in charge of social security issues. Problems of employment and counteracting unemployment are covered by „labour” section, administered by the minister in charge of labour issues.

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  • The Social Insurance Institution was established in 1934 by means of an Ordinance of the President of the Republic of Poland of 24 October 1934 on the amendment of the Law of 28 March 1933 on social insurance. In accordance with the Ordinance, 5 insurance institutions have been merged (Social Insurance Chamber, Sickness Insurance Institution, Accident Insur- ance Institution, White-Collar Employees’ Insurance Institution, Blue-Collar Workers’ Insurance Institution).

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  • ARPA and the 2008 farm bill set premium subsidy rates, that is, the percentage of the premium paid by the government. Premium subsidy rates vary by the level of insurance coverage that the farmer chooses and the geographic diversity of the crops insured. For most policies, the statutory subsidy rates range from 38 percent to 80 percent. Table 1 shows the total costs of subsidies for all crop insurance premiums and administrative expenses for 2000 through 2011.

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  • This study investigates the feasibility, benefits and costs of implementing distance-based motor vehicle insurance. It is based on a literature review, analysis of insurance claim data, comparisons of different distance-based pricing options, and evaluation of concerns that have been raised about distance-based pricing. Vehicle insurance is a significant portion of total vehicle costs. A typical motorist spends almost as much on insurance as on fuel. Insurance is generally considered a fixed cost with respect to vehicle use.

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  • A more specialised health care insurance market – private long-term care (LTC) insurance – is absent or very limited in countries with comprehensive public long-term care benefits, such as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Japan and Luxembourg. In Germany, LTC cover is statutory for every resident.

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  • The second model of social funds is a part of a ministry, for example, the Bolivia fund or FOSIS in Chile, which are at the second stage. They have more formal agreements with the ministries, they lay less em- phasis on emergency procurement, and civil service rules are followed more closely. Then there are the larger funds in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico. These are usually large umbrella institutions. They have no autonomy. They are financed from the national budget. They implement or coordinate many social programs with the objective of reaching the poorest....

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  • Communities have different ways of organizing participation, for example community assemblies, solidarity committees, and so on. Bolivia has an interesting form of citizen participation called vigilance committees. These committees oversee the proper expenditure of project money and the mayor’s work in ensuring the needs and demands of communities are met. The workshop’s participants are now asking whether projects built by social funds are sustainable.

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  • A maintenance culture, which means that what is built is maintained, does not yet exist in Latin America. There is no reason to expect social funds to ensure maintenance better than any of the other ministries. If this culture is instituted, then projects will be sustained, both by the ministries and by the social funds. Citizen participation is emphasized greatly to achieve sustainable out- comes of projects. There is nothing like money to sustain a project.

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  • We are pleased to present the updated issue of publication „Social insurance in Poland – information, facts”. You will fi nd here current information on tasks exercised by the Social Insur- ance Institution (ZUS), current amounts of contributions and benefi ts provided for in the Polish social security system. Starting from 1 January 2009 payment of old-age benefi ts from the new old-age pension scheme, introduced in 1999, has started. For this reason we would like to pay particular attention to old-age pensions from the Social Insurance Fund....

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  • The term fi nance of the social insurance means incomes and expenditure on benefi ts fi nanced by the Social Insurance Fund (SIF), that is benefi ts from the old-age pensions’ fund, pension fund, sickness fund and work accident fund. And family benefi ts, health benefi ts, benefi ts in respect of unemployment and benefi ts from the social insurance of farmers are fi nanced in a different way. The Social Insurance Fund is the appropriated State Fund. It has been established by virtue of the law as from 1 January 1999, to perform tasks in the fi eld of...

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  • Private non commercial arrangements, such as mutuals, go back a few hundreds of years, or more, in several OECD countries, pre-dating many public health coverage or social insurance programmes. Many of the countries where private health insurance has a prominent role – for example, the United States, Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, France – have some tradition of private financing and private provision of health services.

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  • The ownership of insurers and the scope of their activities may also pose market challenges. While competition is arguably limited by the presence of few players, such as in the Irish insurance system, the existence of several players is not the only measure of market competitiveness. Mobility across insurers is low in many OECD countries. It is also sometimes challenging to establish incentives for “healthy” and equitable competition among PHI insurers, as they face incentives to concentrate on good risks, thereby failing to cover more vulnerable individuals.

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  • This dissertation is concerned with the social policy of the Republic of Korea (ROK; South Korea, hereafter Korea) and the Republic of China on Taiwan (ROC on Taiwan, hereafter Taiwan). Using a historical comparative approach it demonstrates that there are not only differences in understanding and interpreting social policy interventions in the different countries, but there are also different factors affecting social policy development in the different countries.

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  • A long-term care insurance scheme, similar in nature to other social insurance systems in Germany (pension, employment and health insurance), was introduced by the German Parliament in 1994. 2 All employees earning less than the social security earnings ceiling (Pflichtversicherungsgrenze) for the German social insurance system (3,937.50 euros per month in 2006) are members of this system.

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  • Prior to the 1930s, there was little federal role in providing disaster assistance to farmers and ranchers. In 1886, Congress appropriated $10,000 for the Department of Agriculture to purchase seed for drought-stricken farmers in Texas, but President Grover Cleveland vetoed the act with the message, “Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character” (Porter, 1988).

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  • Theoretical modeling of unemployment insurance (UI) has typically focused on the benefit level or the replacement rate, i.e., the fraction of earnings replaced by unemployment benefits. Of course, the design of an optimal UI system raises many other issues.

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  • PHI provides a source of insurance in systems with targeted, non-universal access to health care coverage. It plays a particularly large role in countries with a history of private health coverage and an absence of universal coverage. For example, in the Netherlands, nearly all of the population without access to social insurance purchases PHI (about a third of the population), and the majority of the socially insured rely on PHI for coverage of services not included within social insurance.

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