This book represents recent research on tropical cyclones and their impact, and a wide range of topics are covered. An updated global climatology is presented, including the global occurrence of tropical cyclones and the terrestrial factors that may contribute to the variability and long-term trends in their occurrence. Research also examines long term trends in tropical cyclone occurrences and intensity as related to solar activity, while other research discusses the impact climate change may have on these storms....
The possible impact of nanomaterials on future products and services is enormous.
This has led to a tremendous expansion in research and development efforts related
to nanoscale materials and devices. It has also raised new questions as to how these
products will influence the environment, human health, business, education, and
other areas of society. As with any emerging field, a vast amount of disconnected
information is emerging, often spread across multiple disciplines.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a field that impacts on all aspects of human
existence. Professions and professionals in both advanced and emerging economies
have a lot to consider in the quest to ensure that their activities do not adversely
affect society or if they do; how they can best reduce the adverse impact should be
of paramount importance to them in our world today.
The growth of Aquaculture and its future role as a food supplier to human society
has environmental, social and economic limitations, affecting marine ecosystems
and socio-economic scales from local to global. These are close links with human
health requirements and societal needs for various goods and services provided by
marine ecosystems. This book shows this broad spectrum of dependencies of the future
growth of aquaculture and highlights both relevant problems and expectations.
Many people in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) share the belief that a revolution is under way. As
MEMS begin to permeate more and more industrial procedures, not only engineering but society as a whole will be strongly
affected. MEMS provide a new design technology that could rival, and perhaps even surpass, the societal impact of integrated
circuits (ICs). Is this fact or fiction? If it is fact, then several questions must be asked.
A seminal study, The University in Development explores how the university is indeed 'in development': pursuing a new 'third' mission of external societal development (alongside its two existing missions of teaching and research), and experiencing a major internal revolution as this impacts on its structural organisation. Already prevalent in many institutions internationally, this third academic mission has begun to pose troubling challenges to existing academic research cultures and systems in South Africa....
This analysis represents the scale of potential impacts on the economy and not
benefit/cost ratios. Specifically, economic impact studies do not account for some
of the social and environmental impacts that are included in benefit/cost studies,
though they do account for indirect and induced economic growth that is
typically not included in benefit/cost studies.
The social and environmental impacts that are not counted within the GDP
impact measure include, most notably, personal time savings and emissions
For a millennium, universities have been considered the main societal hub for knowledge and learning.1 And for a millennium, the basic structures of how universities produce and disseminate knowledge and evaluate students have survived intact through the sweeping societal changes created by technology—the moveable-type printing press, the Industrial Revolution, the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, and computers.
On behalf of its clients, PGGM Investments manages
several real estate investment portfolios structured
around listed real estate and private real estate.
PGGM Investments recognizes the impact real estate
has on the environment as well as on societal
systems, for instance with regard to CO2 emissions.
This document addresses PGGM Investments’ policy
on integrating material environmental, social and
governance (ESG) issues into our real estate
investments. The scope of this policy covers both
the listed and the private real estate portfolios.
Trachoma is first and foremost a disease of morbidity, reflecting
suffering and disability, in contrast with mortality, which reflects the
rate of death. The burden of disease is an effective framework for
discussing trachoma since it takes into account the effects of morbidity
and mortality on the ability to fulfill societal roles. The burden of
disease looks beyond the prevalence of a disease; that is, it attempts to
measure the impact of disease based on its distribution by sex and age....
Most providers treasure their ability to care for patients. The joy derived from the provider–patient relationship remains intact despite additional individuals (e.g., employers, insurers, benefit managers, billing and collection specialists, utilization reviewers, etc.) and regulations interposed by the current evolution of health care. Additionally, providers appear to be accommodating to longer-term alterations that materially affect overall patient– provider relationships. One feature of the changing relationship is increasing patient autonomy.
Biological invasions are one of the major threats to our native biodiversity. The
magnitude of biodiversity losses, land degradation and productivity losses of managed
and natural ecosystems due to invasive species is enormous. It has an adverse
impact on our efforts to maintain biodiversity and on our conservation programs,
and thus could create societal instability.
The analysis shows that public transportation investment can have significant
impacts on the economy, and thus represent an important public policy
consideration. However, economic impacts should not be equated with the value
of total societal benefits associated with public transportation investment. Care
should also be taken to recognize the short-term effect of public transportation
spending as well as the longer-term benefits of sustained transportation
investment on travel times, costs and economic productivity.
Violence against children is a global human rights and public health issue, with signiﬁ cant negative
health and social impact on children’s development. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
states that all children have the right to be protected against all forms of violence, exploitation and
abuse, including sexual abuse and sexual exploitation.
The short- and long-term consequences of
such violence are severe, not only for those who experience the violence, but also for families and
communities, and constitute a critical societal concern.
Disparities in outcomes associated with race and ethnicity are well documented for many diseases
and patient populations. Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects economically disadvantaged, racial and ethnic
minority populations. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT) contributes heavily to the societal burden of
TB. Individual impacts associated with PIAT may vary by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status.