Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
A large amount of information has accumulated on humic acids and
related substances, which warrants the creation of an independent
science of humic compounds. Two different concepts have emerged
from the maze of data, one claiming humic compounds to be
operational or fake compounds, produced by the analytical extraction
procedures, and the other considering them to be natural compounds
occurring in soils, rivers, lakes, oceans and their sediments.
This volume aims at providing a coherent presentation of recent developments and
understanding of heavy metal reactivity in soils. Such an understanding is necessary
in addressing heavy metals concerns in the environment. The implicit framework of
multiple reactivity acknowledges the widely known role played by the various
colloidal surface functional groups in concomitant reactions. This overarching frame
of reference allows unification between molecular structure-reactivity relationships
at one scale and transport processes at the other....
Smaller particulates related to
combustion are much more dangerous because they are inhaled deeply into the lungs (Cifuentes
et al. 2000, Laden et al. 2000). But note that even if particulate matter from soil is excluded,
industry is still a relatively minor source of PM emissions, accounting for just 14% of remaining
Even within the industry subsector, maquiladoras are not the leading source of two of the
SNIFF air pollutants—PM and SO2. That distinction belongs to small-scale brick kilns (Table
The larger, so-called "coarse" particles are mostly produced by mechanical processes,
such as automobile tire wear on the road, industrial cutting, grinding and pulverizing
processes and re-suspension of particles from the ground or other surfaces by wind and
human activities. The chemical composition of coarse particles may be somewhat
similar to the chemical composition of soil in that area, along with industrial compounds
from activities such as mining or smelting operations.
Decreases in pH and ANC are often paral-
leled by changes in element concentrations
including increases in Al
decreases in Ca
. High dissolved Al
trations can have toxic effects on many types of
aquatic biota, and at extreme levels few aquatic
species can survive (Table 1). Organic forms of
are much less toxic than inorganic forms.
Emerging research suggests that Ca
tions in streamwater are also an important bio-
Point source wastewater treatment-Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as
factory farms, are called concentrated animal feeding operations or confined animal feeding
operations in the U.S. and are being subject to increasing government regulation. Animal slurries are
usually treated by containment in lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland.
Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes, as are anaerobic
The five treatments should be replicated at least three times (depending on gemmule
availability) by each team. That is, three separate gemmules should be placed in three separate wells
for the control treatment and for the most concentrated treatment, and so on. The drawing below
shows the placement of three replicates for three treatments, and teams can discuss the importance of
randomization in experimental design. Once the solutions are added to the treatment wells, a single
gemmule may be placed in each well.
The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference
in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates
— Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized
jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science
with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they
saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to
life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively.
For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or
environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of
Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases
following their release from decaying plant roots.
Many have endeavored to make our outdoor environment cleaner and safer. The learning
process that occurred showed us the limitations of our planet and also the sustainability
of our ecosystem if given a chance. As a community, we learned about the water, the soil,
and the air. We learned about the underground river that flowed to the surface lake. We
learned about air currents that transported airstreams around our globe. We discovered the
reality of plate tectonics and the ever-changing hydrogeological system.
Global agriculture is now at the crossroads. The Green Revolution of the last century that gave many developing countries such as India a breathing spell, enabling them to adjust the growth of their human populations better to the supporting capacity of their ecosystems, is now in a state of fatigue. Average growth rates in food production as well as factor productivity in terms of yield per unit of mineral fertilizer (NPK) are both declining.
Some twenty five countries have experimented with environmental accounting over the
past twenty years. A few European countries have established physical accounting
systems which are routinely compiled and applied to economic and environmental
policy-making. Many other countries have undertaken more limited or one-time
experiments and case studies with monetary environmental accounts, focused on issues
such as forestry, soil erosion, and minerals depletion. A few examples suggest the
richness of their experience.
In earlier times, people did not think about the impact of their
actions on the environment and on future generations. Mankind
hunted certain animals out of existence; damaged or destroyed
ecosystems to build industrial plants, buildings, homes, and other
developments; polluted the air and waterways; and negatively
impacted the health of human beings.
This book provides an authoritative state-of-the-art biotreatment review for
three key contaminant groups: chlorinated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Issues such as
availability, toxicity, and treatability are discussed along with a summary of
the latest bioremediation technologies. Special innovative research and
development projects are presented for each contaminant group.
Pot and field trials were carried out using sediment dredged from the port of Bremen (Germany) and deposited in a settling basin near Bremen; the sediment is polluted with Cd and Zn. Five iron-bearing materials were added to the soil (1% pure Fe in soil dry matter) to immobilize the heavy metals: ‘Red mud from the aluminium industry, sludge from drinking-water treatment, bog iron ore, unused steel shot and steel shot waste.