Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: Mineral nutrients of beech (Fagus sylvatica) bark in relation to frost sensitivity and soil treatments in southern Sweden...
Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial
wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal
or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids.
This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved
in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater
A large amount of information has accumulated on humic acids and
related substances, which warrants the creation of an independent
science of humic compounds. Two different concepts have emerged
from the maze of data, one claiming humic compounds to be
operational or fake compounds, produced by the analytical extraction
procedures, and the other considering them to be natural compounds
occurring in soils, rivers, lakes, oceans and their sediments.
Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.
The treatment of contaminated land to eliminate or reduce the presence of
pollutants in the contaminated site has received (and will continue to receive)
considerable attention from the practicing profession. Extensive research and development
are still underway in respect to the delivery of more effective (and economic)
means for site decontamination.
This volume aims at providing a coherent presentation of recent developments and
understanding of heavy metal reactivity in soils. Such an understanding is necessary
in addressing heavy metals concerns in the environment. The implicit framework of
multiple reactivity acknowledges the widely known role played by the various
colloidal surface functional groups in concomitant reactions. This overarching frame
of reference allows unification between molecular structure-reactivity relationships
at one scale and transport processes at the other....
This book examines the practices used or considered for
biological treatment of waterlwastewater and hazardous wastes.
The technologies described involve conventional treatment
processes, their variations, as well as recent research. The book
is intended for those seeking an overview of the field, and covers
the major topics. The book is divided into five principal sections,
and references are provided for those who wish to dig deeper.
The work of the dry-farmer is only half done when the soil has been properly prepared, by deep plowing, cultivation, fallowing, for the planting of the crop. The choice of the crop, its proper seeding, and its correct care and harvesting are as important as rational soil treatment in the successful pursuit of dry-farming. It is true that in general the kinds of crops ordinarily cultivated in humid regions are grown also on arid lands, but varieties especially adapted to the prevailing dry-farm conditions must be used if any certainty of harvest is desired. Plants possess a marvelous power...
The soil treatment prescribed in the preceding chapters rests upon (1) deep and thorough plowing, done preferably in the fall; (2) thorough cultivation to form a mulch over the surface of the land, and (3) clean summer fallowing every other year under low rainfall or every third or fourth year under abundant rainfall.
Students of dry-farming all agree that thorough cultivation of the topsoil prevents the evaporation of soil-moisture, but some have questioned the value of deep and fall plowing and the occasional clean summer fallow.
The careful application of the principles of soil treatment discussed in the preceding chapters will leave the soil in good condition for sowing, either in the fall or spring. Nevertheless, though proper dry-farming insures a first-class seed-bed, the problem of sowing is one of the most difficult in the successful production of crops without irrigation. This is chiefly due to the difficulty of choosing, under somewhat rainless conditions, a time for sowing that will insure rapid and complete germination and the establishmcnt of a root system capable of producing good plants.
As the global population grows and many developing countries modernize, the
importance of water supply and water treatment becomes a much greater factor
in the welfare of nations. In similar fashion, the need to address both domestic
and industrial wastes generated by these nations moves higher on the scale of
importance. Clearly, in today’s world the competition for water resources coupled
with the unfortunate commingling of wastewater discharges with freshwater
supplies creates additional pressure on treatment systems....
Judicious treatment of environmental questions and challenges requires an integrated, crossdisciplinary
approach. Whether working at a local, national, regional, or global scale, the knowledge
and expertise resident in a variety of subject areas comes to bear on all questions of
sustainable development. Soil scientists now collaborate with colleagues in many Þelds, and a
basic working knowledge
The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference
in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates
— Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized
jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science
with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they
saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to
life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively.
For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or
environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of
Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases
following their release from decaying plant roots.
Many have endeavored to make our outdoor environment cleaner and safer. The learning
process that occurred showed us the limitations of our planet and also the sustainability
of our ecosystem if given a chance. As a community, we learned about the water, the soil,
and the air. We learned about the underground river that flowed to the surface lake. We
learned about air currents that transported airstreams around our globe. We discovered the
reality of plate tectonics and the ever-changing hydrogeological system.
This is an insider's account of 50 years of genetic studies of the soil-inhabiting microbes that produce most of the antibiotics used to treat infections, as well as anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and immunosuppressant drugs. The book begins by describing how these microbes - the actinomycetes - were discovered in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but remained a 'Cinderella' group until, in the 1940s, they shot to prominence with the discovery of streptomycin, the first effective treatment for tuberculosis and only the second antibiotic after penicillin to become a medical marvel.
Global agriculture is now at the crossroads. The Green Revolution of the last century that gave many developing countries such as India a breathing spell, enabling them to adjust the growth of their human populations better to the supporting capacity of their ecosystems, is now in a state of fatigue. Average growth rates in food production as well as factor productivity in terms of yield per unit of mineral fertilizer (NPK) are both declining.
A wide variety of detail regarding genuine and proprietary research from distinguished authors is presented, ranging from new means of evaluation of the local solar irradiance to the manufacturing technology of photovoltaic cells. Also included is the topic of biotechnology based on solar energy and electricity generation onboard space vehicles in an optimised manner with possible transfer to the Earth. The graphical material supports the presentation, transforming the reading into a pleasant and instructive labor for any interested specialist or student....
Some twenty five countries have experimented with environmental accounting over the
past twenty years. A few European countries have established physical accounting
systems which are routinely compiled and applied to economic and environmental
policy-making. Many other countries have undertaken more limited or one-time
experiments and case studies with monetary environmental accounts, focused on issues
such as forestry, soil erosion, and minerals depletion. A few examples suggest the
richness of their experience.