Abstract The year 2008 marked the one hundredth anniversary of the observational discovery
by George Ellery Hale of magnetic field in sunspots (Hale in Astrophys. J. 28:315–343,
1908). This observation, the first to suggest a direct link between the best-known variable
features on the Sun and magnetism, started a line of research that has widened considerably
over the last 100 years and is continuing today. Knowledge about all aspects of the Sun
has increased in a remarkable way over the past few decades....
This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on
Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun-
Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective
of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of
magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between
locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts,
the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.
These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on
developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields.
Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted
reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy
by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells,
transformers, and so on.
The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research
topics within the electrical engineering domain.