Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems are power systems energised by photovoltaic panels which are connected to the utility grid. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems comprise of Photovoltaic panels, MPPT, solar inverters, power conditioning units and grid connection equipments. Unlike Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems these systems do not have batteries. When conditions are right, the grid-connected PV system supplies the excess power, beyond consumption by the connected load, to the utility grid....
As populations increase and countries industrialize, the world’s
demand for energy increases. Our supply of petroleum and gas is limited,
but the photovoltaic cell offers a solution to the problem of a future energy
shortage. This cell is already an important source of energy. In fact, it seems
almost like magic. The photovoltaic cell changes sunlight directly into
energy. Solar energy – energy from the sun – is clean, easily available,
inexhaustible, and free, if the equipment is available....
This section discusses the review of monthly reports, equipment and supply
inventories, and segregation of financial administrative duties. In reviewing reports,
the reviewer shall sign a departmental reviewer's certification log (which should include
the account numbers, transaction month, reviewer's signature, and the date received)
for the DaFIS transactions and the departmental reviewer's certification section printed
on the last page of payroll reports.
California and Hawaii do not provide detailed performance standards within the legislation,
these states have separate solar-specific equipment certification and contractor licensing
requirements. Two other states with tax credits—Hawaii and Oklahoma—also have
equipment certification standards and/or special contractor licenses to help ensure adequate
performance. North Carolina lacks these state requirements but provides detailed equipment
standards within the tax-credit legislation.
More stringent quality assurance is required in Utah, Rhode Island, and Oregon.
There are currently 15 states offering income-tax credits for renewable energy technologies,
with nine states offering both personal and corporate tax credits. These programs are
administered by state revenue departments or other state agencies. All but three of these 15
states consider both solar and wind technologies eligible for the incentive. Credits against
income tax range from 10% to 35% of equipment and installation costs for both personal and
corporate income-tax credits. Three states have performance-based credits.