Solid fuels

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  • Although there were many books and papers that deal with gasification, there has been only a few practical book explaining the technology in actual application and the market situation in reality. Gasification is a key technology in converting coal, biomass, and wastes to useful high-value products. Until renewable energy can provide affordable energy hopefully by the year 2030, gasification can bridge the transition period by providing the clean liquid fuels, gas, and chemicals from the low grade feedstock....

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  • Introduction: Mixed ionic–electronic conductors (MIECs) have been and continue to be of interest for strategic applications related to energy conversion and environmental monitoring including batteries, fuel cells, permeation membranes, and sensors. Within solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), for instance, nanostructured ionic and electronic conducting materials can increase the electrochemical performance of the cathode and thus could potentially facilitate lower-temperature operation and thereby provide faster start-up times, improved stability, and less complicated thermal management. ...

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  • Gaseous fuels are generally easier to handle and burn than are liquid or solid fuels. Gaseous fossil fuels include natural gas (primarily methane and ethane) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG; primarily propane and butane). Gaseous man-made or artificial fuels are mostly derived from liquid or solid fossil fuels. Liquid fossil fuels have evolved from animal remains through

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  • Edwards et al (2006) report indoor air quality monitoring in nearly 400 households in the three provinces of Hubei, Shaanxi, and Zhejiang in 2002-2003. Great care was taken to select homes that reflect the diversity of fuels and stove technology and stove performance in China. PM4 concentrations in 75 percent of kitchens and 73 percent of living rooms during the winter - and 48 percent of kitchens and 46 percent of living rooms during the summer - exceeded the national indoor air quality PM10 standard of 150 ug/m3 for a 24 hour average. If PM10...

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  • This book highlights the important need for more efficient and environmentally sound combustion technologies that utilise renewable fuels to be continuously developed and adopted. The central theme here is two-fold: internal combustion engines and fuel solutions for combustion systems. Internal combustion engines remain as the main propulsion system used for ground transportation, and the number of successful developments achieved in recent years is as varied as the new design concepts introduced....

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  • Introduction: Background The vast majority of research into solid-state polymer electrolytes for low-temperature (o200 1C) fuel cells has focused on proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFCs). Recently, there has been interest in the application of the analogous anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), in alkaline forms, in low-temperature fuel cells (Figure 1).

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  • This book offers reviews of state-of-the-art conversion techniques for biofuels. It focuses on the latest development for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels that should be of interest to the chemical scientists and technologists.

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  • Desai et al. (2004) provide a meta-analysis of health effects from household solid fuel air pollution. Health effects were categorized by level of evidence from the research literature. Relative risk ratios associated with solid fuel use, relative to clean fuels such as LPG, were derived for each health outcome (table 3.1). 11 The national and global mortality and DALY estimates presented by WHO (2007) reflect the relative risk ratios in Desai et al, limiting the health effects to ALRI in children u5, and COPD and lung cancer in adult women and men. ALRI...

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  • CHAPTER 4 6 GASEOUS FUELS Richard J. Reed North American Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio 46.1 46.2 INTRODUCTION NATURAL GAS 46.2.1 Uses and Distribution 46.2.2 Environmental Impact 46.2.3 Sources, Supply, and Storage 46.2.4 Types and Composition 46.2.5 Properties 46.2.6 Calorific Value or Heating Value 1505 1505 1505 1505 1507 1507 1507 46.3 1507 46.2.7 46.2.8 46.2.9 46.2.10 46.2.11 46.2.12 Net Heating Value Flame Stability Gas Gravity Wobbe Index Flame Temperature Minimum Ignition Temperature 46.2.

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  • Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone, play an important role in balancing the temperature of the Earth’s surface by absorbing and emitting radiation within the thermal infrared range from the source. However, with the enormous burning of fossil fuels from the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has greatly increased.

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  • In this book, papers pertaining to resource management for sustainable agricultural development are presented in four parts divided into ten chapters. Part I discusses the usage of water and waste management for sustainable agricultural development including aspects like irrigation management to prevent soil and ground water salinization, production of solid fuel from oil palm waste, sustainable ecomaterials and biorefinery from agroindustrial waste, nonpoint pollution from agriculture and livestock activities on surface water....

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  • The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Although some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally, profiles of indoor air pollutants and the resulting health risks are generally very different in developed and developing countries.

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  • While wood and to some extent charcoal are the most common solid fuels used in developing countries, China and Mongolia have high household prevalence of coal, especially for heating in open portable space heaters, some with and some without chimney. Mestl et al. (2006), based on data from the China 2000 Population Census, report that about 60 percent of rural households used biomass as primary cooking fuel. Nearly 30 percent of rural households used coal as the primary fuel. Mestl et al model annual average population weighted exposure (PWE) to indoor air pollution by...

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  • The WHO has estimated that environmental exposures contribute to 19% of cancer incidence worldwide. 6 Additionally, a WHO Global Health Risks report looked at five environmental exposures, (unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, urban outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke from solid fuels, lead exposure and climate change), and estimated they account for nearly 10% of deaths and disease burden globally and around one quarter of deaths and disease burden in children under the age of five.

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  • We discuss the two most promising scenarios presented in Hutton et al, namely an improved stove intervention and use of LPG instead of solid fuel. The improved stove intervention is a chimneyless rocket stove, assumed to reduce SFU health effects by 35 percent. Annualized unit stove cost is US $ 2.6-3.1. Annualized unit cost of LPG stove and gas cylinder is US $9-18. LPG consumption is 0.3-0.9 kg per household per day. Annualized program cost per household is less than one dollar in most regions. 14 Reduced mortality is valued at the human...

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  • Unmeasured confounders are factors that influencemortality and vary with time in amanner that is similar to air pollution. These factors produce seasonal and long-termtrends inmortality that can confound the relationship between mortality and air pollution. Influenza and respira- tory infectionsmight reasonably be considered among themost important, usually unmeasured or not readily available confounders which produce seasonal patterns in mortality.

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  • More than half of the world's population relies on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, to meet their basic energy needs. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution. Globally, indoor air pollution is responsible for approximately 1.6 million deaths every year. Various interventions are available to reduce indoor air pollution and associated health impacts at the household level.

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  • Areas with high concentrations of air-borne particulate matter are more likely to experience fogs, because these particles are preferred nucleation sites for water droplets. Smoke and soot are also very undesirable aesthetically. Soot is formed during combustion when the supply of oxygen is insufficient for complete conversion of carbon to carbon oxides. Its formation is mainly a problem in the combustion of liquid and solid fuels (oil, coal, or wood), because molecular-scale mixing of fuel and oxygen is not as easy here as it is in the combustion of natural gas (see below).

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  • World Health Statistics 2008 presents the most recent available health statistics for WHO’s 193 Member States. This fourth edition includes 10 highlights of health statistics as well as data on an expanded set of over 70 key health indicators. The indicators were selected on the basis of their relevance to global health monitoring and c onsiderations of data availability, accuracy and comparability among Member States. This publication is in two parts. Part 1 presents 10 topical highlights based on recent publications or results of new analyses of existing data.

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  • Scarcely one half of the children of our country continue in school much beyond the fifth grade. It is important, therefore, that so far as possible the knowledge which has most to do with human welfare should be presented in the early years of school life. Fisher, Metchnikoff, Sedgwick, and others have shown that the health of a people influences the prosperity and happiness of a nation more than any other one thing. The highest patriotism is therefore the conservation of health.

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