Solid medicine

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  • With this edition of Biomedical Ethics Reviews we commence a somewhat new focus for the series. Building on its solid tradition of exploring and debating pressing bioethical issues of the day, this series will now also examine the real-life implications of these issues for patients and the health care system in which care is delivered. With each topic, attention will be focused not only on the theoretical and policy aspects of ethical dilemmas, but also on the clinical dimensions of these challenges, and effects on the patient–physician relationship....

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  • Another local approach uses adenoviral-mediated expression of the tumor suppressor p53, which is mutated in a wide variety of cancers. This strategy has shown complete and partial responses in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, esophageal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer after direct intratumoral injection of the vector. Response rates (~15%) are comparable to those of other single agents.

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  • The enzymatic kinetics of glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) towards highly crystalline celluloses at the solid–liquid interface was evaluated by applying the novel concept of surface density (q) of the enzyme, which is defined as the amount of adsorbed enzyme divided by the maximum amount of adsorbed enzyme.

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  • The coat proteins of filamentous phage are first synthesized as transmem-brane proteins and then assembled onto the extruding viral particles. We investigated the transmembrane conformation of the Pseudomonas aerugi-nosa Pf3 phage coat protein using proton-decoupled 15 N and 31 P solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

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  • The infrared and Raman spectroscopy have applications in numerous fields, namely chemistry, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, geology, mineralogy etc. This book provides some examples of the use of vibrational spectroscopy in supramolecular chemistry, inorganic chemistry, solid state physics, but also in the fields of molecule-based materials or organic-inorganic interfaces.

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  • Solid mechanics, which includes the theories of elasticity and plasticity, is a broad discipline, with experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects, and with a twofold aim: on the one hand, it seeks to describe the mechanical behavior of solids under conditions as general as possible, regardless of shape, interaction with other bodies, field of application, or the like; on the other hand, it attempts to provide solutions to specific problems involving stressed solid bodies that arise in civil and mechanical engineering, geophysics, physiology, and other applied disciplines.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 82. Infections in Patients with Cancer Infections in Patients with Cancer: Introduction Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in patients with a wide variety of neoplasms. Autopsy studies show that most deaths from acute leukemia and half of deaths from lymphoma are caused directly by infection. With more intensive chemotherapy, patients with solid tumors have also become more likely to die of infection.

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  • Adenoviruses have been recognized as opportunistic and significant viral pathogens in immunocompromised patients such as recipients of hematopoietic stem cells or other solid organs treated with immunosuppressive agents, and among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. These patients are incapable of developing a normal immune response. Reactivation of adenoviruses in the impaired immunological response leads to acute or persistent infections with high morbidity or even mortality in these patients.

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  • Among halogens, fluorine is quite characteristic and specific since it has the largest electronegativity (4.0 vs 3.5 for oxygen) and the sterically second smallest van der Waals' radius (1.35 ~ vs. 1.20/~ for hydrogen). A carbon-fluorine bond is also stronger than a carbon-hydrogen bond (485 kJ/mol vs 414 kJ/mol). Therefore, fluoro organic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties.

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  • Stages of REM sleep (solid bars), the four stages of NREM sleep, and wakefulness over the course of the entire night for representative young and older adult men. Characteristic features of sleep in older people include reduction of slow-wave sleep, frequent spontaneous awakenings, early sleep onset, and early morning awakening. (From the Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.)

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  • Cancer Cell Biology The treatment of most human cancers with conventional cytoreductive agents has been unsuccessful due to the Gompertzian-like growth kinetics of solid tumors (i.e., tumor growth is exponential in small tumors, with increasing doubling times as tumors expand; since conventional chemotherapeutic agents target proliferating cells, noncycling cells in large tumors are relatively resistant). Genetic instability is inherent in most cancer cells and predisposes to the development of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Thus, although tumors arise from a single cell (i.e.

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  • We utilized plasmon-waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy to follow the effects of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and zinc ions on the binding and aggregation of the amyloidbpeptide1)40 in lipid bilayers. With a dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer, peptide binding was observed, but no aggregation occurred over a period of 15 h.

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  • Chromosomal Instability in Solid Tumors Solid tumors are generally highly aneuploid, containing an abnormal number of chromosomes; these chromosomes also exhibit structural alterations such as translocations, deletions, and amplifications. Again, colon cancer has proven to be a particularly useful model for the study of chromosomal instability (CIN). As described above, some familial cases are characterized by the presence of MIN.

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  • The taxanes include paclitaxel and docetaxel. These agents differ from the vinca alkaloids in that the taxanes stabilize microtubules against depolymerization. The "stabilized" microtubules function abnormally and are not able to undergo the normal dynamic changes of microtubule structure and function necessary for cell cycle completion. Taxanes are among the most broadly active antineoplastic agents for use in solid tumors, with evidence of activity in ovarian cancer, breast cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and lung tumors.

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  • Sweet's syndrome, or febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, was originally described in women with elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts. The disease is characterized by the presence of leukocytes in the lower dermis, with edema of the papillary body. Ironically, this disease now is usually seen in neutropenic patients with cancer, most often in association with acute leukemia but also in association with a variety of other malignancies. Sweet's syndrome usually presents as red or bluish-red papules or nodules that may coalesce and form sharply bordered plaques.

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  • Clinical Features About 10% of esophageal cancers occur in the upper third of the esophagus (cervical esophagus), 35% in the middle third, and 55% in the lower third. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas cannot be distinguished radiographically or endoscopically. Progressive dysphagia and weight loss of short duration are the initial symptoms in the vast majority of patients. Dysphagia initially occurs with solid foods and gradually progresses to include semisolids and liquids.

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  • Hematologic Syndromes: Introduction The elevation of granulocyte, platelet, and eosinophil counts in most patients with myeloproliferative disorders is caused by the proliferation of the myeloid elements due to the underlying disease rather than a paraneoplastic syndrome. The paraneoplastic hematologic syndromes in patients with solid tumors are less well characterized than the endocrine syndromes because the ectopic hormone(s) or cytokines responsible have not been identified in most of these tumors (Table 96-2).

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  • Granulocytosis Approximately 30% of patients with solid tumors have granulocytosis (granulocyte count 8000/µL). In about half of patients with granulocytosis and cancer, the granulocytosis has an identifiable nonparaneoplastic etiology (infection, tumor necrosis, glucocorticoid administration, etc.). The other patients have proteins in urine and serum that stimulate the growth of bone marrow cells.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 105. Malignancies of Lymphoid Cells Malignancies of Lymphoid Cells: Introduction Malignancies of lymphoid cells range from the most indolent to the most aggressive human malignancies. These cancers arise from cells of the immune system at different stages of differentiation, resulting in a wide range of morphologic, immunologic, and clinical findings. Insights on the normal immune system have allowed a better understanding of these sometimes confusing disorders. Some malignancies of lymphoid cells almost always present as leukemia (i.e.

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  • Infection with Viridans Streptococci: Treatment Isolates from neutropenic patients with bacteremia are often resistant to penicillin; thus these patients should be treated presumptively with vancomycin until the results of susceptibility testing become available. Viridans streptococci isolated in other clinical settings usually are sensitive to penicillin. Abiotrophia Species (Nutritionally Variant Streptococci) Occasional isolates cultured from the blood of patients with endocarditis fail to grow when subcultured on solid media.

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