Two other sets of concepts that generate strong, and sometimes conflicting, reactions are the
notion of what is 'public' (the public sector, the state, action that takes place in public) versus
what is 'private' (of interest only to the individual/family, the private sector); and the meanings
associated with money. We suggest that donation is a multi-layered process with each layer
having its own public and private meanings. It may therefore be more helpful to think of public
and private as being complementary and overlapping rather than in opposition (see Box 4.3).
IVF and related treatments (GIFT and ZIFT, see below) are the most invasive ART treatments.
Usually women try other methods first, and turn to IVF when those methods have not succeeded
in pregnancy or live birth. One percent of babies in the US are born using IVF. Unlike AI,
fertilization takes place outside the woman’s body in which eggs (retrieved from the woman
trying to get pregnant or from an egg donor) are fertilized with sperm (from a partner or donor)
in a Petri dish.
Interest in trends in the health of the elderly has become widespread in recent years.
Until about two decades ago, trends in mortality were assumed to provide a good
indicator of the health of the elderly, and because mortality was decreasing fairly
steadily, it was assumed that health was improving. Subsequently, both researchers
and policy makers have come to understand that health is a multidimensional
concept and that trends in mortality do not necessarily represent trends in all other
dimensions of health; and, in fact, change in all dimensions does not have to be
Experience transmitted by media is sometimes a functional equivalent for
experience gained in the real world. American movies have influenced the
image of legal procedure a great deal – and not just in the United States of
America. An English legal expert told us about seeing a young barrister try to
proceed before an English court in a manner that is possible only in the United
Globalization has perhaps been the notion most widely used and debated by the
social sciences in the last decade of the twentieth century and in the first years of
the twenty-first. Subject to diverse and sometimes conflicting interpretations, the
concept has also been the target—as shown in Chap. 1—of harsh criticisms from
authors who have contested its real meaningfulness and extent.
At the start of the 21st century, the learning potential of significant numbers of children
and young people in every country in the world is compromised. Hunger, malnutrition,
micronutrient deficiencies, parasite infections, drug and alcohol abuse, violence and injury,
early and unintended pregnancy, and infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted
infections threaten the health and lives of children and youth (UNESCO, 2001). Yet these
conditions and behaviours can be improved.
Following the ramp-up into volume rollout described in the section above, a full deployment rate of
almost 6,000 premises passed per day is planned for FY2014. A significant risk to achieving this
planned rate, and hence, the volume deployment plan, is a possible economy-wide shortage of
available construction resources at an acceptable cost. In particular, this will be dependent on the
overall market demand for labour. NBN Co will work with the training industry to ameliorate the
impacts of possible labour shortages.
Depending on the route, the walk may go through more than one police area. Organisers are normally
required to log route details with the operational departments of each separate police force.
It may be appropriate to check with the police that your route is considered safe from a crime
perspective and take advice about your plans.
It is generally the case nowadays that although the police may assist with the development of your
event and give advice, they no longer provide a free presence on the day other than their normal beat
presence. Any special...
The available evidence suggests that they are not. Every five years, the Census Bureau
conducts its nationwide Survey of Business Owners. The SBO samples privately held,
nonfarm businesses of all ages, from recently founded to many years in existence. Using
SBO data, the American Express OPEN report for 2011 found that just 1.8 percent of
women-owned firms had revenues more than $1 million. The figure for men-owned firms
was 6.3 percent
In public perception, the $1 million threshold has become a sort of magic number.
Unless a poll is demanded by the chairman of the general meeting or by the specified number of
shareholders or by the shareholders holding specified shares, the voting at a general meeting is
done through a show of hands. Each shareholder has one vote. In the case of a poll, voting rights of
a member are in proportion to his share of the paid-up equity capital. Preference shareholders have
the right to vote only on matters that directly affect the rights attached to preference shares.
Preference shareholders have the same rights to voting as equity shareholders if the dividend has...
This session will be an opportunity to reflect on how development cooperation actors can best hold each other to account
for commitments made on gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women at sub-national, sector,
national, regional and global levels.
Third, the findings reveal that frequent midwifery care users are more likely to consult
acupuncturists and doulas. This finding supports previous research identifying midwives as a
popular source of CAM information for pregnant women  and often encouraging CAM use
for women in their care .
The traditional approach of corporate governance in the financial sector often
involved the regulator or bank supervisor relying on statutory authority to devise
governance standards promoting the interests of shareholders, depositors and other
stakeholders. In the United Kingdom, banking regulation has traditionally involved
government regulators adopting standards and rules that were applied externally to
regulated financial institutions.
This article introduces quasi-Darwinian selection as a new explanatory paradigm for marketing relationships. In this
paradigm, established relationships are viewed as survivors of a selection process whose parameters are the
conduct of the partners, dependencies between the partners, and external adversities in the markets. Selection has
the effect of culling certain combinations of these parameters, such as attempts at unilateral control when the
partner is not dependent.
The results of this project illustrate substantial technical potential for cars environmental improvement.
The existing and developing legislation was also considered to assess any possible untapped technical
potential. The European policy (and also the national policy) is actually being considering the environmental
impacts from cars over years and already addresses some of the important environmental aspects at
different stages of the car life cycle (e.g. air pollution, CO2
emissions, end-of-life waste, batteries, etc.).
Throughout the late-1940s and 1950s, the top marginal tax rate was typically above 90%; today it
is 35%. Additionally, the top capital gains tax rate was 25% in the 1950s and 1960s, 35% in the
1970s; today it is 15%. The real GDP growth rate averaged 4.2% and real per capita GDP
increased annually by 2.4% in the 1950s. In the 2000s, the average real GDP growth rate was
1.7% and real per capita GDP increased annually by less than 1%. This analysis finds no
conclusive evidence, however, to substantiate a clear relationship between the 65-year reduction
in the top...
We introduce an alternative approach to extracting word pair associations from corpora, based purely on surface distances in the text. We contrast it with the prevailing windowbased co-occurrence model and show it to be more statistically robust and to disclose a broader selection of significant associative relationships - owing largely to the property of scale-independence. In the process we provide insights into the limiting characteristics of window-based methods which complement the sometimes conflicting application-oriented literature in this area. ...
A growing literature has demonstrated that neighborhoods of residence affect health and may contribute
to socioeconomic disparities in health. Contextual effects have been documented across a wide spectrum of
populations, including both children and adults. However, neighborhood effects on the health of the elderly are
currently understudied. Neighborhoods of residence across the lifecourse are likely to affect health status in late
life and to contribute to observed disparities for several reasons.
Treatment requirements imposed on individual firms were seen as the most direct
response to pollution problems. In the climate of the early 1970s, and given the lack of regional
institutions in place, the desire to minimize compliance costs and use taxes to meet ambient goals
was less strongly felt. This is one explanation for the quantity-based regulatory system we have
in place to this day. To understand some of the other explanations, it is necessary to describe the
characteristics of a tax system in more detail.
Before doing so, mention should also be made...