Space plasma

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  • The inner magnetosphere is an important region of space plasma because it is one of the “kitchens” for space weather effects. The scientific understanding of this region is important for predicting the interaction between space environmental conditions and human activities. The inner magnetospheric plasma is a unique composition of different plasma particles and waves. It covers a huge plasma energy range with spatial and time variations of many orders of magnitude.

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  • The purpose of this monograph is to formulate a quantitative and self-consistent theoretical approach to wave–particle interactions occurring in space plasmas, and present a logical development of the subject. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, Nature has given us a plasma laboratory that is accessible to observations made by radio, magnetic and electric instruments on the ground, and a great variety of instruments aboard rockets and Earth-orbiting satellites. Spacecraft are making similar observations in the more distant solar system.

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  • This textbook is intended as an introduction to the physics of solar and stellar coronae, emphasizing kinetic plasma processes. It is addressed to observational astronomers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates without a background in plasma physics. Coronal physics is today a vast field with many different aims and goals. Sorting out the really important aspects of an observed phenomenon and using the physics best suited for the case is a formidable problem.

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  • In the past decades a renewed interest has been seen around optical wireless communications, commonly known as free-space optics (FSO), because of the ever growing demand for high-data-rate data transmission as to a large extent current applications, such as the high-definition (HD) contents and cloud computing, require great amount of data to be transmitted, hence, demanding more transmission bandwidth. Nowadays, the last mile problem continuous to be the bottle neck in the global communication network....

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  • This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of the solar wind exploration.

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  • We present the proceedings from the workshop entitled Scientific Detectors for Astronomy 2005, a weeklong meeting held in Taormina, Sicily during 19-25 June 2005. This was the sixth workshop of this series, and the fourth with hardcover proceedings. By all measures, this workshop surpassed the previous meetings. The primary purpose of any technical meeting is the exchange of scientific and engineering information.

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  • Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. From prehistoric storage jars to tiles on the space shuttles, pottery and ceramics have played a key role in innumerable human endeavors. The art of ceramics is one of the oldest known, dating to prehistoric times. Once heated (fired) to between 350⁰ and 800⁰C, the clay is converted to ceramic and will never dissolve again.

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  • This book is concerned with Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF)-electromagnetic waves observed on the Earth and in Space. These are so-called geomagnetic variations or pulsations. Alfv´en’s discovery related to the influence of the strong magnetic field on the conducting fluids (magnetohydrodynamics) led to development of the concept that the ULF-waves are magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-waves. MHD-waves at their propagation gather information about the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and the ground. There are two applied aspects based on using the ULF electromagnetic oscillations.

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  • This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun- Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts, the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.

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  • Introduction to Space Sciences and Spacecraft Applications explains the fundamentals of design, application, and operation of space-based systems. It focuses on the most common uses of spacecraft today: communications, remote sensing, and navigation. You will learn about the basic systems required by most spacecraft and the methodology used to design a spacecraft. The complexities of orbital mechanics are also fully explained. Amply illustrated with diagrams and photographs, each chapter contains exercises, historical information, and additional reference materials.

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  • The Sun is the primary source of energy at Earth, and the Sun’s output determines the conditions in interplanetary space at Earth and throughout the solar system. Earth’s magnetic field and associated electrical current systems are continuously reacting to changing conditions in the solar wind that are driven by processes occurring at the Sun. The characteristics of Earth’s ionosphere and neutral thermosphere are influenced both by local processes and by coupling of the ionosphere and thermosphere to the overlying regions of the geospace1 environment....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 46. Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances Sodium and Water Sodium and Water: Introduction Composition of Body Fluids Water is the most abundant constituent in the body, comprising approximately 50% of body weight in women and 60% in men. This difference is attributable to differences in the relative proportions of adipose tissue in men and women. Total body water is distributed in two major compartments: 55–75% is intracellular [intracellular fluid (ICF)], and 25–45% is extracellular [extracellular fluid (ECF)].

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  • Deficiencies of coagulation factors have been recognized for centuries. Patients with genetic deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors exhibit lifelong recurrent bleeding episodes into joints, muscles, and closed spaces, either spontaneously or following an injury. The most common inherited factor deficiencies are the hemophilias, X-linked diseases caused by deficiency of Factor (F) VIII (hemophilia A) or Factor IX (FIX, hemophilia B).

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  • Sequence of events leading to the formation and retention of salt and water and the development of edema. ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; RPF, renal plasma flow; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; ADH, antidiuretic hormone. Inhibitory influences are shown by broken lines. Incomplete ventricular emptying (systolic heart failure) and/or inadequate ventricular relaxation (diastolic heart failure) both lead to an elevation of ventricular diastolic pressure.

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  • Patients with fulminant meningococcemia often experience diffuse leakage of fluid into extravascular spaces, shock, and multiple-organ dysfunction (Chaps. 264 and 265). Myocardial depression may be prominent. Supportive therapy, although never studied in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, is recommended. Standard measures include vigorous fluid resuscitation (often requiring several liters over the first 24 h), elective ventilation, and pressors. Some authorities recommend early hemodialysis or hemofiltration.

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  • Sodium and Water: Introduction Composition of Body Fluids Water is the most abundant constituent in the body, comprising approximately 50% of body weight in women and 60% in men. This difference is attributable to differences in the relative proportions of adipose tissue in men and women. Total body water is distributed in two major compartments: 55–75% is intracellular [intracellular fluid (ICF)], and 25–45% is extracellular [extracellular fluid (ECF)]. The ECF is further subdivided into intravascular (plasma water) and extravascular (interstitial) spaces in a ratio of 1:3.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 110. Coagulation Disorders Coagulation Disorders: Introduction Deficiencies of coagulation factors have been recognized for centuries. Patients with genetic deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors exhibit lifelong recurrent bleeding episodes into joints, muscles, and closed spaces, either spontaneously or following an injury. The most common inherited factor deficiencies are the hemophilias, X-linked diseases caused by deficiency of Factor (F) VIII (hemophilia A) or Factor IX (FIX, hemophilia B).

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  • Most methods for data analysis were derived from the plasma radioactivity curve and were based on the general assumptions that synthesis and catabolism took place in a compartment in close contact with the intravascular space, that the study subjects were in steady state concerning IgG metabolism, and that metabolism of the labeled protein was identical with that of the native unlabeled protein (1). Figure 2a shows a semilogarithmic plot of the time-dependent decline of 125I-labeled IgG representing the disappearance of the tracer from the plasma in a normal subject.

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  • Hyaluronan matrices are ubiquitous in normal and pathological biological processes. This remarkable diversity is related to their unique mechanism of synthesis by hyaluronan synthases. These enzymes are normally acti-vated in the plasma membrane and utilize cytosolic substrates directly to form these large polyanionic glycosaminoglycans, which are extruded directly into the extracellular space.

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