Species concepts

Xem 1-20 trên 63 kết quả Species concepts
  • This chapter define and discuss the limitations of the four species concepts, describe and provide examples of prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers, distinguish between and provide examples of allopatric and sympatric speciation, explain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation, define the term hybrid zone and describe three outcomes for hybrid zones over time.

    ppt45p tangtuy09 21-04-2016 3 1   Download

  • In chapter 4, we introduced threads to the process model. On operating systems that support them, it is kernel-level threads not processes that are in fact being scheduled by the operating system. However, the terms "process scheduling" and "thread scheduling" are often used interchangeably. In this chapter, we use process scheduling when discussing general scheduling concepts and thread scheduling to refer to thread-specific ideas.

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  • The book includes collection of theoretical papers dealing with the species problem, which is among most fundamental issues in biology.

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  • We present a web mining method for discovering and enhancing relationships in which a specified concept (word class) participates. We discover a whole range of relationships focused on the given concept, rather than generic known relationships as in most previous work. Our method is based on clustering patterns that contain concept words and other words related to them. We evaluate the method on three different rich concepts and find that in each case the method generates a broad variety of relationships with good precision. ...

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  • We present a method which, given a few words defining a concept in some language, retrieves, disambiguates and extends corresponding terms that define a similar concept in another specified language. This can be very useful for cross-lingual information retrieval and the preparation of multi-lingual lexical resources. We automatically obtain term translations from multilingual dictionaries and disambiguate them using web counts. We then retrieve web snippets with cooccurring translations, and discover additional concept terms from these snippets....

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  • In this chapter, we discuss various ways to manage memory. The memory- management algorithms vary from a primitive bare-machine approach to paging and segmentation strategies. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Selection of a memory-management method for a specific system depends on many factors, especially on the hardware design of the system. As we shall see, many algorithms require hardware support, leading many systems to have closely integrated hardware and operating-system memory management.

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  • This book is an exploration of the evolutionary process of natural hybridization. My motivation for writing this book comes from the view that crosses between genetically divergent individuals have a major influence on the evolution of some plant and animal species complexes. In particular, I want to examine the role that natural hybridization has as a creative force in organismal evolution. I realize that my emphasis on the "creative" aspect of natural hybridization could lead some to conclude that I believe that this is the only possible outcome from hybridization and gene exchange....

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  • This paper presents a set of Bayesian methods for automatically extending the W ORD N ET ontology with new concepts and annotating existing concepts with generic property fields, or attributes. We base our approach on Latent Dirichlet Allocation and evaluate along two dimensions: (1) the precision of the ranked lists of attributes, and (2) the quality of the attribute assignments to W ORD N ET concepts. In all cases we find that the principled LDA-based approaches outperform previously proposed heuristic methods, greatly improving the specificity of attributes at each concept. ...

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  • Chapter 24 introduce to the origin of species. This chapter define and discuss the limitations of the four species concepts, describe and provide examples of prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers, distinguish between and provide examples of allopatric and sympatric speciation, explain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation, define the term hybrid zone and describe three outcomes for hybrid zones over time.

    ppt39p tangtuy02 08-03-2016 3 1   Download

  • In chapter 4, we introduced threads to the process model. On operating systems that support them, it is kernel-level threads not processes that are in fact being scheduled by the operating system. However, the terms "process scheduling" and "thread scheduling" are often used interchangeably. In this chapter, we use process scheduling when discussing general scheduling concepts and thread scheduling to refer to thread-specific ideas.

    pdf17p tangtuy05 01-04-2016 4 1   Download

  • In this chapter, we discuss various ways to manage memory. The memory- management algorithms vary from a primitive bare-machine approach to paging and segmentation strategies. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Selection of a memory-management method for a specific system depends on many factors, especially on the hardware design of the system. As we shall see, many algorithms require hardware support, leading many systems to have closely integrated hardware and operating-system memory management.

    pdf27p tangtuy05 01-04-2016 5 1   Download

  • Nanotechnology involves research and development on materials and species at length scales between 1 and 100 nm. The term nano is derived from the Greek word meaning “dwarf.” In dimensional scaling, nano refers to 10–9, i.e., one billionth of a unit. Thus, a nanometer is 10–9 m (0.000000001 m), or about the size of a molecule such as benzene. Nanotechnology therefore, refers to the techniques and methods for studying, designing, and fabricating things at the nanometer scale.

    pdf453p chuyenphimbuon 21-07-2012 40 14   Download

  • Conserving Living Natural Resources provides students, managers, and general readers with an introduction to the principles of managing biological resources. It presents the historical and conceptual contexts of three seminal approaches to the management of living natural resources: utilitarian management for harvest of featured species and control of unwanted species, protection and restoration of populations and habitats to maintain biodiversity, and management of complex ecosystems to sustain both productivity and biodiversity.

    pdf444p huetay_1 28-02-2013 25 8   Download

  • Some communities offer a “One Stop Shopping” concept for permitting. The person requesting a permit for an event completes applications at one place and the information is forwarded to the appropriate agencies for their approval. The person requesting the permit does not have to track down the appropriate agencies to make a request. This concept also ensures that all required agencies are notified and considerations are made before the permit is issued.

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  • Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments.

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  • For the investor types believing that active managers can generate alphas, we nd that the ability to identify superior performing funds is further improved, albeit slightly, by augmenting the four-factor model with country indices, even if these indices represent non-priced factors, consis- tent with Pastor and Stambaugh (2002a). To illustrate, our baseline analysis nds CAPM alpha enhancements of up to 5% per year from using macroeconomic state variables to choose funds, relative to active manager choice using an unconditional CAPM model.

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  • One of the characteristics of non-wood fibres is the much wider range of fibre lengths in different species (Atchison 1987). Many of these fibres, such as straws, reeds and bagasse, are similar in length to the short fibre hardwoods. On the other hand, others such as flax and hemp are so long that they have to be shortened prior to papermaking (Atchison 1987). From a quality point of view, any grade of paper can be produced by the combination of different non-wood plant fibres (Atchison & McGovern 1987). For instance, flax has a very long fibre length and...

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  • Real estate is valued for its cash flow, both its operating cash flow during the time that you own the property and its likely net sale proceeds when you go to sell the property at some time in the future. Since real estate is purchased today based on its ability to produce cash flow in the future, tools are needed which help calculate the present value of future cash flows. These tools are readily available, are discussed in Tool Kits #2 and #3, and involve the concept of “capitalization”. All capitalization tools convert future income...

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  • A well-defined collection of objects is known as a set. This concept, in its complete generality, is of great importance in mathematics since all of mathematics can be developed by starting from it. The various pieces of furniture in a given room form a set. So do the books in a given library, or the integers between 1 and 1,000,000, or all the ideas that mankind has had, or the human beings alive between one billion B.C. and ten billion A.D. These examples are all examples of finite sets, that is, sets having a finite number of elements.

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  • The common methodology in this dissertation, especially the analysis of the divergence be- tween resource allocations and the official concept of corporate strategy, helped to formulate and justify the specific research and to familiarize us with the case study company. Since the coding scheme used during this first exploratory phase included specific marks for all re- source allocations that had been influenced by external actors, first insights into the direct effects of external involvement on strategy formation could also be generated.

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