Analog circuit design imposes many issues and challenges to guarantee the development
of successful applications. For instance, the accomplishment of target specifi cations
requires the highest experience of analog designers along with their creativity
and ingenuity to deal with trade-off s and to discover the obscure interactions among
design parameters. From this point of view, analog circuit design is considered a kind
Microbubble-based contrast agents for ultrasound were introduced some time ago,
although their clinical application has become widespread only in recent years. Since
color and power Doppler reveal overt artifacts after microbubble injection due to the
peculiar features of harmonic signals produced by insonation of microbubbles, dedicated
contrast-specifi c modes of US were introduced to optimize the registration of
The purpose of this and the following chapter is to briefly go through the most basic concepts in probability
theory and statistics that are important for you to understand. If these concepts are new to you, you should
make sure that you have an intuitive feeling of their meaning before you move on to the following chapters in
REAL-TIME LOGIC, GRAPH-THEORETIC ANALYSIS, AND MODECHART
A real-time system can be speciﬁed in one of two ways. The ﬁrst is to structurally and functionally describe the system by specifying its mechanical, electrical, and electronic components. This type of speciﬁcation shows how the components of the system work as well as their functions and operations. The second is to describe the behavior of the system in response to actions and events. Here, the speciﬁcation tells sequences of events allowed by the system....
At aminimum, an event notiﬁcation service exports two functions that together
deﬁne what is usually referred to as the publish/subscribe protocol. Interested
parties specify the events in which they are interested by means of the func-
tion subscribe. Objects of interest publish notiﬁcations via the function publish.
SIENA extends the publish/subscribe protocol with an additional interface func-
tion called advertise, which an object of interest uses to advertise the notiﬁca-
tions it publishes. SIENA also adds the functions unsubscribe and unadvertise.
To deal with the lack of reported information, we propose a novel approach to obtain
the exposure contained in the net position in interest-rate derivatives. We specify a state
space model of a bank’s derivatives trading strategy. We then use Bayesian methods to
estimate the bank’s strategy using the joint distribution of interest rates, bank fair and
notional values as well as bid-ask spreads. Intuitively, the identiﬁcation of the bank’s
strategy relies on whether the net position (per dollar notional) gains or loses in value
over time, together with the history of rates.
The feedback from oil prices to economic activity is captured by a reduced-form
production function that allows us to separately specify shocks to the output gap
(transitory shocks to output), shocks to potential output (permanent shocks to the level of
output), and shocks to potential output growth (permanent shocks to the growth rate of
output). The richness of this speciﬁcation helps us to model the complicated interactions
of oil price movements and GDP, where both trend and gap decline if oil prices increase.
This paper presents a joint model for template ﬁlling, where the goal is to automatically specify the ﬁelds of target relations such as seminar announcements or corporate acquisition events. The approach models mention detection, uniﬁcation and ﬁeld extraction in a ﬂexible, feature-rich model that allows for joint modeling of interdependencies at all levels and across ﬁelds.
We present a general model and conceptual framework for specifying architectures for incremental processing in dialogue systems, in particular with respect to the topology of the network of modules that make up the system, the way information ﬂows through this network, how information increments are ‘packaged’, and how these increments are processed by the modules. This model enables the precise speciﬁcation of incremental systems and hence facilitates detailed comparisons between systems, as well as giving guidance on designing new systems. ...