Blood, urine and stomach contents (including gastric lavage fluid and vomitus) are usually used as specimens for analysis of drugs and poisons for living subjects. A blood concentration of a toxin can be an indicator for estimation of intoxication degree. Urine sometimes contains large amounts of metabolites and/or an unchanged form of a toxin; it contains low levels of proteins, which usually interfere with analysis, and thus is suitable for screening tests using immunoassays without tedious pretreatments.
This book is a revised edition of the Manual of basic techniques for a health laboratory
(WHO, 1980), major revisions having been carried out by Dr K. Engbaek, Dr C.C.
Heuck and Mr A.H. Moody. The revision was necessary because of new procedures
and technology that have been developed since the previous edition and that
have proved to be useful to small laboratories in developing countries. The procedures
have been included in the relevant sections of the manual, and some obsolete
procedures have been replaced by more up-to-date techniques....
The cave of Tham Khuyen in Lang Son
Province, northeastern Vietnam, has yielded
a large mammalian fauna of probable late
middle Pleistocene date. A series of isolated
hominoid primate teeth, formerly allocated
to the extant orangutan Pongo pygmaeus, has
recently been reexamined and found to represent
more than one species. These specimens
are described in detail in this paper and
are analyzed as follows. Some ofthe teeth are
indeed clearly identifiable as those of Pongo
pygmaeus, but the majority appear to belong
to a species related to the orangutan but not
identical with it....
Containers for collecting live hosts may include any type
of cage that prevents escape, including plastic vials with
pinholes in the lids or with cotton plugs for air circulation
and prevention of condensation. The addition of a drying
agent, such as silica gel, to the container used for
temporary storage will slow or prevent germination of
entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and help eliminate
the growth of saprobic fungi on specimens (Figure 1.3).
Aquatic invertebrates and specimens containing
nematodes and certain protistan parasites should not be
allowed to dry.
Since 1965, when the paraquat herbicide had started to be sold, its poisoning cases increased year by year. However, in 1986, mixture products of paraquat plus diquat with lower toxicity appeared; just after this year, the numer of cases of poisoning by paraquat (plus diquat) decreased suddenly, followed by the gradual decrease until now, but the paraquat (plus diquat) poisoning cases still count as much as about 40 % of the total number of pesticide poisoning .
The Sixth Edition of Dr. Haines's best-selling neuroanatomy atlas features a stronger clinical emphasis, with significantly expanded clinical information and correlations. More than 110 new images--including MRI, CT, MR angiography, color line drawings, and brain specimens--highlight anatomical-clinical correlations. Internal spinal cord and brainstem morphology are presented in a new format that shows images in both anatomical and clinical orientations, correlating this anatomy exactly with how the brain and its functional systems are viewed in the clinical setting.
The aconite plants contain Aconitum alkaloids (AAs) and other minor components, such as chasmanine, kobusine and higenamine. AAs consist of aconitines, benzoylaconines and aconines as shown in Figure 1.1. The most toxic group is the aconitines, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine; this group is one of the most poisonous compounds being contained in the plant kingdom. Even nowadays, aconite poisoning cases take place occasionally. These may be due to accidental, suicidal or homicidal ingestion of the plant itself or its extracts.
Serous or “body cavity fluids” are usually collected with aseptic technique by needle puncture and
aspiration of the body cavity fluid. Methods for obtaining the specimen vary depending upon the
site. Fluids are best collected into a dry container and submitted in the fresh state to the
Adding 3-5 IU heparin/mL to a container prior to obtaining a bloody sample will
usually inhibit clotting and not adversely affect morphology. If delay in transportation to the
laboratory is unavoidable, most fluids may be kept refrigerated (4ºC) up to 72 hours.
For subsequent analysis of the specimen, the needles may be rinsed into a physiologic solution,
tissue culture medium, transportation medium or proprietary fixative for liquid based processing.
Needles should not be re-sheathed using a two handed technique and instead should be discarded
directly into an OSHA approved sharps disposal container.
For cystic lesions, remove as much fluid as possible. The cyst fluid can be handled as a liquid
specimen. If there is a residual mass, the procedure for solid lesions as described above should be
Principles of Antibacterial Chemotherapy
The choice of an antibacterial compound for a particular patient and a specific infection involves more than just a knowledge of the agent's pharmacokinetic profile and in vitro activity.
Four hundred and seven small pages, over and above the Epistle Dedicatory, are contained in Volume One.
Really, however, this is not the true Dio at all, but merely his shadow, seized and distorted to satisfy the ideas
of his epitomizer, the monk Xiphilinus, who was separated from him by a thousand years in the flesh and
another thousand in the spirit. Of the little specimens here and there translated for this man's or that man's
convenience no mention need here be made.