Overview The goal of a control system is to enhance automation within a system while providing improved performance and robustness. For instance, we may develop a cruise control system for an automobile to release drivers from the tedious task of speed regulation while they are on long trips. In this case, the output of the plant is the sensed vehicle speed, y, and the input to the plant is the throttle angle, u, as shown in Figure 1.1. Typically, control systems are designed so that the plant output follows some reference input (the driver-specified speed in the case of our...
As I noted, the ﬁnancial crisis has created an increasingly
global outlook among policymakers. More and more, national
regulators are inﬂuenced by policies fashioned abroad, and
international bodies are stepping up policy coordination.
At the same time, the extraordinary worldwide rise of as-
set managers as ﬁnancial intermediaries has created new
opportunities for funds. Responding to these and other
trends, the Institute readied a new initiative —ICI Global—
launched early in ﬁscal year 2012.
Medical advances have been occurring at breathtaking speed, with diagnostic and treatment
options becoming available for conditions for which none previously existed. However, several
aspects of health care remain the same. Patients continue to rely heavily on clinicians for help in
understanding the burgeoning evidence in medical research and for providing optimal health
care. Clinicians remain steadfast in their quest to meet the needs of their patients and to encourage
innovation in meeting those needs.
The budget deficit equivalent to total government spending
tax minus total government spending revenue.If
income tax independently, but depend on the net
The relevance of seaports in the efficient working of an economy cannot be understated
since all goods and passengers transported by sea require the use of, at least, two ports. In
the majority of countries, most international trade (export/import), and in some cases also
large shares of domestic trade, is done through maritime transport.
Any book written about a subject which is rapidly changing necessarily
represents a ‘snapshot’ in time—the author’s attempts to describe the current
situation, and to predict what might be the state of things when the book is
published. In the case of this book, the speed of change is rapidly increasing as
the European Community (EC) nears 31 December 1992, the target date which
the Single European Act defines as that by which a Single Market in products
should be established.
Biodiversity forms patterns not just across space, but also across time. New species
emerge, old ones become extinct; rates of diversification speed up and slow down.
These long-term patterns in evolution get their start in the generation-to-
generation processes of natural selection, genetic drift, and reproductive isolation.
When a lineage of organisms evolves over a few million years, these processes
can potentially produce a wide range of patterns (see ). Natural selec-
tion may produce a significant change in a trait such as body size, for example.
The recommendations are based on four guiding
First, PSPs should perform specifi c assessments
of the risks associated with providing internet
payment services, which should be regularly
updated in line with the evolution of internet
security threats and fraud. Some risks in this
area have been identifi ed in the past, for example
by the Bank for International Settlements in
2003 6 or the Federal Financial Institutions
Examination Council in 2005 and 2011.
We decided to use continuous monitoring to improve shipping
throughput (speed) and accuracy. Our goals included the elimination
of the annual physical inventory—but this was a minor benefit. The
real benefit was efficiency of the distribution operation—speed in
picking and shipping product with less staff, every day of the year.
We built an inventory locator system and improved automated
efficiencies by adding locations to the pick tickets. We then added a
control function (Inventory Control Dept. [ICD]) that reviewed
inventory received, and released it into the inventory.
Being the heir of universe’s top luxury product is not the entire story,
though. Unconscious reading, with your eyes flying over a text at
speeds of almost a line per second, cannot be acquired in a few months.
Instead, it takes decades of training to tune up your brain to high-speed
reading. At present, you read faster than you did at the age of 20; at 20,
you read faster than at 15; at 15 faster than at 10; at 10 faster than at 8,
and so on. Reading only one hour every day exposes your brain to some
20,000 words, or 7 million words per...
PUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS
PUMP OPERATING MODES AND CRITICALITY 7.3 Series Pump Installation Analysis 7.3 Parallel Pumping Economics 7.5 Using Centrifugal Pump Speciﬁc Speed to Select Driver Speed 7.10 Ranking Equipment Criticality to Comply with Safety and Environmental Regulations 7.12 PUMP AFFINITY LAWS, OPERATING
In the Department of Structural and Fluid Mechanics
we are happy to present the first English edition of the
book: ’The Centrifugal Pump’. We have written the book
because we want to share our knowledge of pump hydraulics,
pump design and the basic pump terms which
we use in our daily work.
’The Centrifugal Pump’ is primarily meant as an internal
book and is aimed at technicians who work with
development and construction of pump components.
Materials Handling Technology Conveyor Belts
Our conveyor belts are designed for use in a wide variety of production applications. There is a belt width and length to suit almost every application. The conveyor belts are powered by an electric motor, which is electronically regulated to provide belt speeds from 0.02 to 30 metres per minute. The motor can be mounted horizontally or vertically, on either side of the belt for either direction of movement. Conveyor belts are available with or without profiles across the belt. Conveyor edge rails are also available in a range of designs.
Machine Tool Monitoring and Control
5.1 5.2 5.3 Kourosh Danai
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Introduction Process Monitoring
Tool Wear Estimation • Tool Breakage Detection • Chatter Detection
Control for Process Regulation • Control for Process Optimization
Machine tool monitoring and control are essential for automated manufacturing. Monitoring is necessary for detection of a process anomaly to prevent machine damage by stopping the process, or to remove the anomaly by adjusting the process inputs (feeds and speeds).
According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams, and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered...
There are a number of ways to deﬁne performance, such as servo bandwidth, accuracy, regulation, etc. Percent regulation, for machine servo drives, can be deﬁned as how much the controlled variable of a servo will reduce as load is applied to the servo. As such, percent regulation is usually applied to type 0 velocity regulators to describe how well the output velocity will be maintained as load is applied to the output of the drive. Percent regulation is often given as the equation Percent regulation ¼ no load speed À full load speed full load speed...
Other improvements in check collection have focused on when a customer
has access to funds deposited in a bank. Until the late 1980s, depository
institutions were not required to make funds from check deposits avail-
able for withdrawal within specif ic time frames. In 1988, the Federal
Reserve Board adopted Regulation CC, Availability of Funds and Collec-
tion of Checks, which implemented the Expedited Funds Availability Act.
Regulation CC established maximum permissible hold periods for checks
and other deposits, after which banks must make funds available for with-
This paper examines the main drivers of this environmental innovation and specifically
addresses the part of environmental policy in this process. Based on a comparative
analysis of the development of the pulp and paper sector in different countries, the paper
also examines whether different policy approaches have mattered for the speed and
depth of environmental innovation. Additional information on the relationship between
innovation and environmental regulation has been obtained by interviews with industry
experts in different countries (see Appendix II). ...