There was complete agreement among two independent raters in classifying 327
reproductive messages out of a total of 362 references taken from a representative sample
of the opera and art songs, which represents an inter-rater agreement of over 90%.
Figure 4 depicts the results. A t-test failed to demonstrate a significant difference in
the number of reproductive categories between the opera and art songs, t(104) = .6098, p =
The second reason why contraception has gained importance is due to
disease. As we will see at the end of this chapter,many serious diseases can
be passed between people during sex. Some birth control methods are
also important ways to reduce the transmission of certain diseases.
Over time, various methods of birth control have been developed.
Some methods are more effective than others. The most effective means
of birth control is abstinence, that is, not having sexual intercourse.
Another critical barrier to access is discrimination by state laws or fertility clinics. Coverage in
five of the states with insurance mandates
is only available to married couples, and four of
mandate use of the husband’s sperm, eliminating the possibility of donor sperm.
Some fertility clinics only offer services to married couples as well. The American Society for
Reproductive Medicine reports that fertility clinics vary in their willingness to treat single
women, single men, lesbian couples, and gay male couples.
Lectins belonging to the jacalin-related lectin family are distributed widely
in the plant kingdom. Recently, two mannose-specific lectins having tan-dem repeat-type structures were discovered in Castanea crenata(angio-sperm) and Cycas revoluta(gymnosperm). The occurrence of such similar
molecules in taxonomically less related plants suggests their importance in
the plant body.
We have previously reported that two trypsin-like enzymes,
acrosin and spermosin, play key roles in sperm penetration
through the vitelline coat of the ascidian (Urochordata)
Halocynthia roretzi[Sawadaet al. (1984),J. Biol. Chem.259,
2900±2904; Sawadaet al. (1984), Dev. Biol.105, 246±249].
Here, we show the amino-acid sequence of the ascidian
preprospermosin, which is deduced from the nucleotide
sequence of the isolated cDNA clone.
The past three decades have witnessed significant advances in the field
of assisted human conception. Following the remarkable perseverance and
triumph of Robert Edwards, Patrick Steptoe, and Jean Purdy, numerous
scientists and physicians from around the world have worked to develop
more effective and safer procedures to treat infertile couples.
Fertility Infertility is an important consequence of the treatment of GCTs. Preexisting infertility or impaired fertility is often present. Azoospermia and/or oligospermia are present at diagnosis in at least 50% of patients with testicular GCTs. Ejaculatory dysfunction is associated with RPLND, and germ cell damage may result from cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Nerve-sparing techniques to preserve the retroperitoneal sympathetic nerves have made retrograde ejaculation less likely in the subgroups of patients who are candidates for this operation.