This research examines how differences in the organization of brand information in memory between higher and lower knowledge consumers affects which brands are retrieved when consumers are provided with a usage situation. A spreading activation network model of memory is used to predict the results of an experiment where the usage situations were varied at encoding and repeated recall sessions.
This paper examines how the effort choices of workers within the same firm interact with
each other. In contrast to the existing literature, we show that workers can affect the
productivity of their co-workers based on income maximization considerations, rather than
relying on behavioral considerations such as peer pressure, social norms, and shame.
Theoretically, we show that a worker’s effort has a positive effect on the effort of co-workers if
they are complements in production, and a negative effect if they are substitutes.
In banking, especially in risk management, portfolio management, and structured ﬁnance, solid quantitative know-how becomes more and more important. We had a two-fold intention when writing this book: First, this book is designed to help mathematicians and physicists leaving the academic world and starting a profession as risk or portfolio managers to get quick access to the world of credit risk management. Second, our book is aimed at being helpful to risk managers looking for a more quantitative approach to credit risk. ...
Unprecedented growth in the telecommunications industry has driven wide-spread deployment of optical
fiber over the past few years. As a result, many service providers are finding that their existing fiber frames
and troughs are overflowing with large masses of optical fiber patch cords. In addition, the rapid
deployment of SONET/SDH, fiber in the loop and video initiatives has created the demand for increased
termination density at the fiber distributing frame.
The Academy Awards have been broadcast on television since 1953, when the
show was sponsored by RCA Victor and televised by NBC. (Levy, 24) The show is
currently contracted to the ABC network and has consistently captured very large
audiences. The impact of Academy Awards on films and their creators has been widely
discussed. As Emanuel Levy notes,
[W]inning an Oscar means not only prestige but hard cash at the box office. Winning the Best Picture
award can add up to twenty or thirty million dollars in movie ticket sales....
During the interval in which time series overlap, the British and
French negative length was growing at roughly the same rates as the US
one, until 1914. That war year constitutes a great discontinuity, and from
then on European growth rates are different and far lower than US ones.
At the same time, the average film length increased considerably,
from eighty feet in 1897 to seven hundred feet in 1910 to three thousand
feet in 1920. As a result, the total released length, which is the best
indicator of production, increases more rapidly than the number released,
Focusing on women, girls, and gender equality: A core objective of GHI is to improve health outcomes among
women and girls, both for their own sake and because of the centrality of women to the health of their families and
communities. Over the long term, improving the health of women enhances their productivity and social and eco-
nomic participation. Improving women’s health also benefits, now and in the future, the social and economic develop-
ment of families, communities and nations.
Exchange involves the transfer of ownership -- goods for money or goods for goods. Most
exchange transactions are concluded with the payment of money, although some barter exchange
is practiced among countries having centrally controlled trading agencies.
Many people and agencies are engaged in the exchange of agricultural products. The courts
stand ready to enforce rules of fair dealing. Commercial banks provide credit for the shipment of
products and to finance processing and storage. The futures market is available to help in
spreading the market price risk.
The dominant nature of this long-short or spread trading
activity explains why hedge funds do so well in market
downturns (i.e. it is not directional). But it also explains why
leverage needs to be relatively high: investing in a strong
stock market generates strong returns, while investing in a
low-risk spread in a long-short strategy does not. So the
trade has to be levered up a number of times in order for the
spread trades to generate competitive returns (while keeping
the benefit of avoiding directional risk in the market).
Despite the large social benefits from PAYD, there are currently several barriers to its
widespread adoption, including the cost to monitor miles traveled and some state insur-
ance regulations. In order to facilitate the spread of PAYD, we propose a three-part strat-
egy. First, states should pass legislation permitting mileage-based insurance premiums.
Second, the federal government should increase the funding available to PAYD pilot pro-
grams by $15 million over five years.
Nitrogen, found in commercial fertilizers and manure, is applied in many different chemical forms. Bacteria can
convert all of them to nitrate, a form of nitrogen that can be taken up by plant roots. Nitrate is very soluble in
water and is easily carried from farm fields into streams and rivers. Perforated pipes called tiles, which farmers
bury under their fields to manage water drainage in an effort to maximize crop production, make the situation
A SINGLE MEDIUM CAMPAIGN is no less than two and no more than four total pieces in the entry. An INTEGRATED CAMPAIGN has two or more executions spread over two or more media. There must be a minimum of two media used, but no more than six. There can be no more than four pieces per medium, with a maximum number of nine total pieces in the entry.
Broadcast, Audio Visual or Computer Presentation Entries
All video and audio assets for ADDY Awards entries must be submitted as digital uploads via the online ADDY software. DVDs and CDs are NO LONGER...
Better measurement begins with better data. In the era of Big Data, CG companies need to identify
which data provide the best insights into consumer behaviours and interactions with their brand or the
product categories in which they compete (see sidebar, page 12). Then they need to ensure that the right
processes and tools are in place to capture and analyse these data.
Strategic partnerships will continue to play an important role as the consumer marketing efforts of
CG companies mature.
An additional element in the prevention of introduction and spread of disease is the use of
vaccination. The manual does not cover this aspect but the importance of an appropriate
vaccination strategy is acknowledged, and vaccination as a possible risk management measure
should form part of the overall biosecurity assessment and strategy.
The purpose of the manual is to establish a minimum set of biosecurity guidelines, applicable to
all poultry producers (including ratites) from hatcheries to the point of delivery at the processor.
In the current model, there is an integrated furniture manufacturer located in Tupelo, MS.
To simplify the model, the manufacturer is assumed to produce only one type of finished
product which requires only one type of raw material (e.g. plywood). To reduce costs of
buying raw materials, the manufacturer would prefer to order everything from the Asian
supplier since the Asian supplier offers a much cheaper unit price.
Advection is the transport of dissolved solute mass present in groundwater due
to the bulk flow (movement) of that groundwater. Advection alone (with no
dispersion or reactive processes occurring) would cause a non-reactive solute
to advect (move) at the mean groundwater pore velocity. All solutes undergo
advection, however, reactive solutes are subject to influences by other
processes detailed below.
Molecular diffusion is the movement of solute ions in the direction of the con-
centration gradient from high towards low concentrations. It effects all solutes.
National Bank for Development designed its Microcredit concept under a lending system based on
the banking culture to achieve the social and national goal in accordance with the Egyptian context.
It is designed to be responsive to the immediate short credit needs of small entrepreneurs with no
commercial record or license.
The amount to deduct is the amount of the expense which was used up
during this period. This may not be the amount actually paid. For example,
if you owe money at the end of the account – your trade creditors – it may
be that this should be included in this account rather than later when it is
paid. (Make sure you do not deduct any payments made in this account
which you included as trade creditors in your last accounts.) But if you
make a payment which is used up over two periods or more you should
spread it in your accounts. For example, if...
Governments in developing countries
need to spend more money on essential
public services if they are to have a
serious impact on poverty.
Take the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), a set of
targets for halving extreme poverty,
providing universal primary education,
halting the spread of HIV and AIDS and
much more by 2015. Ambitious, yes, but
To meet many of the MDGs, governments
will need to hire more public sector
employees, from teachers and doctors to
agricultural extension workers.
Would you and your neighbors like to adopt “lake-friendly” landscaping practices
that will protect lake quality and the surrounding natural beauty? Research into
social marketing has shown that when 15% of a community is engaged in a
new behavior, that behavior has the momentum to spread on its own