The sixth and last part of the book, considers developments at the international level
within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It sets out the current state-
of-play within WTO and alternate modalities for scheduling WTO commitments within
the insurance sector, and ends with the chairman’s summary of the meeting which
encapsulates discussions in all areas but focuses on the impact of insurance liberalization
on developing countries.
The key issue of audit involvement in live
applications is to determine who will undertake the
review. In many organisations, computer auditors
will perform a live review of IT applications, whilst in
others, live applications may be viewed as a business
area and therefore the responsibility of a business
auditor. Increasingly, a joint approach is being
adopted by many organisations where the IT
application forms part of a wider scope audit of the
business area and enables a more integrated and
complete review to be undertaken.
The frequency of the periodic review is also
his monograph presents the results of a project entitled Improving Army Doctrine and Planning for Stability Operations. A great deal of activity has been aimed at revising the approach to the planning and implementation of Stabilization, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations. The primary emphasis of the
In this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the role of the Federal Reserve of the United States, define macroeconomic stability as the Fed’s primary goal while noting that controlling inflation has typically been the way it measures its success, integrate an understanding of the tools of monetary policy with their application utilizing an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model, describe the recent history of monetary policy and the Federal Reserve’s role in the 2007-2009 recession.
When you finish this chapter, you should: Define a cartel, model how a cartel can make their members large sums of money, show why cartels are not typically stable and describe the conditions necessary for creating cartel stability, evaluate whether OPEC qualifies as a cartel, summarize the history of inflation-adjusted oil and gasoline prices.
“Risk concentrations are arguably the single most important cause of major problems
in banks”.1 On the one hand, dealing with concentration risk is important for
the survival of individual banks; therefore, banks should be interested in a proper
management of risk concentrations on their own. On the other hand, the Basel
Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) has found that nine out of the thirteen
analyzed banking crises were affected by risk concentrations,2 which shows that
this issue is important for the stability of the whole banking system.
Stability Issues in RNN Architectures
The focus of this chapter is on stability and convergence of relaxation realised through NARMA recurrent neural networks. Unlike other commonly used approaches, which mostly exploit Lyapunov stability theory, the main mathematical tool employed in this analysis is the contraction mapping theorem (CMT), together with the ﬁxed point iteration (FPI) technique. This enables derivation of the asymptotic stability (AS) and global asymptotic stability (GAS) criteria for neural relaxive systems.
The new edition of this comprehensive digital controls book integrates MATLAB throughout the book. The book has also increased inflexibility and reader friendliness through the streamlining of coverage in Chapters 6 & 7 (controllability, pole placement and observability, and optimal control). The previous edition ISBN is: 0-13-216102-8.
Interest income is recognized on the accrual basis.
Dividend income and distributions from investment
trust units are recognized on the ex-dividend and
ex-distribution date, respectively.
Interest on inflation-indexed bonds will be paid
based on the principal value, which is adjusted for
inflation. The inflation adjustment of the principal
value is recognized as part of interest income in the
Statement of Operations.
Dodd-Frank includes a number of provisions requir-
ing increased reporting by private fund managers. Pursu-
ant to Dodd-Frank, the SEC, in its recent amendments to
Form ADV, added a number of items concerning detailed
disclosure of various information concerning private
funds managed by the registered adviser.
Different PHI functions give rise to specific policy challenges. Primary PHI markets often create
access-related challenges, especially for high-risk and vulnerable groups, where they represent the sole
form of cover for some population groups.15 Where public and private delivery systems are linked to
different funding sources, as in systems with duplicate private health insurance, differences in access to
care, choice levels and utilisation patterns occur between individuals with and without private insurance.
In addition, it could make the
liquidity position of the ETF fragile, by challenging the ability of ETF providers to meet
unexpected liquidity demands from investors, particularly if outflows from ETFs become
significant under severe stress. A prevalence of securities lending could create a risk of a
market squeeze in the underlying securities if ETF providers recalled on-loan securities on a
large scale in order to meet redemptions.
This document is one of a series of guidance notes produced by The National Archives,
giving general advice on issues relating to the preservation and management of
electronic records. It is intended for use by anyone involved in the creation of electronic
records that may need to be preserved over the long term, as well as by those
responsible for preservation.
This guidance note provides information for the creators and managers of electronic
records about the selection of physical storage media in the context of long-term
World Bank documents and speeches now emphasise the need to assess the links between
social and environmental changes and macroeconomic performance. Bank President
Wolfensohn’s main current reform proposal is to refine and implement his Comprehensive
Development Framework (CDF); an attempt to present an integrated, holistic analysis of the
relationship between human, structural and environmental change and its traditional goals of
macroeconomic stability and economic growth.
In this work, the second type was adopted and exercises were prepared to be solved in a
worksheet (Microsoft Excel). The table of contents indicates the exercises corresponding to each
This manual is the result of a series of courses on Fish Stock Assessment held in the following
places. Portugal : Instituto de Investigação das Pescas e do Mar – IPIMAR (ex-INIP) in Lisbon,
Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, University of Algarve and Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de
Abel Salazar in Oporto.
This volume brings about the contemporary results in the field of discrete-time systems. It covers papers written on the topics of robust control, nonlinear systems and recent applications. Although the technical views are different, they all geared towards focusing on the up-to-date knowledge gain by the researchers and providing effective developments along the systems and control arena. Each topic has a detailed discussions and suggestions for future perusal by interested investigators.
While common issuance has typically been regarded as a longer-term possibility, the
more recent debate has focused on potential near-term benefits as a way to alleviate
tension in the sovereign debt market. In this context, the introduction of Stability Bonds
would not come at the end of a process of economic and fiscal convergence, but would come
in parallel with further convergence and foster the establishment and implementation of the
necessary framework for such convergence.
A first option for providing additional monetary accommodation, if necessary, is
to expand the Federal Reserve’s holdings of longer-term securities. As I noted earlier,
the evidence suggests that the Fed’s earlier program of purchases was effective in
bringing down term premiums and lowering the costs of borrowing in a number of
private credit markets. I regard the program (which was significantly expanded in March
2009) as having made an important contribution to the economic stabilization and
recovery that began in the spring of 2009.
The West, as we noted in the Introduction, relies heavily on
the Indian software industry, and thus on Indian stability;
China is capable of damaging the American and world econ-
omies by cashing in its huge dollar reserves; Russia is able to
stop a very large part of the gas supply to Europe. In 2007 we
witnessed a cyber attack on Estonia, launched either using the
capabilities of a state or by individuals acting anonymously.
While NATO lawyers tried to figure out whether this last
example constituted an attack according to Article 5, the EU
and NATO failed to rally to...
In this paper, a method to reproduce realistic
driving feeling and improve the returnability of steer-by-wire
systems (SBW) is proposed by measuring the roadwheel motor's
current directly. The key contribution presented here is a novel
method to recreate the driving feeling in term of force feedback
with simpie and cheap current sensors. A current sensor is used to
fully measure the steering torque on the rack of steering
mechanism. This measured steering torque therefore, includes the
overall effects of road conditions, aligning moments, tire
properties and so on.