The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human
activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil
fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by
the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes
unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite
of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.
The Department of Defense (DOD) seeks to transform the nation’s armed
forces to meet the military challenges of the future. The Navy and the Marine
Corps have defined their respective Service visions of transformation in Sea
Power 211 and Marine Corps Strategy 21,2 and together they form Naval Power
21,3 the vision of how the naval forces of the United States will be equipped,
trained, educated, organized, and employed in the 21st century.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) funds research across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines in support of the Navy and Marine Corps. To ensure that its investments are serving those ends and are of high quality, ONR requires each of its departments to undergo annual review. Since 1999, the Naval Expeditionary Warfare Department of ONR has requested that the NRC conduct these reviews. This report presents the results of the second review of the Marine Corps Science and Technology program. The first review was conducted in 2000. ...
The use of the Internet (and other information technology) among
the general population has resulted in a rising level of comfort and
familiarity with these technologies. Businesses such as retailers,
banks, and investment companies have been shifting more of their operations
online, seeking to meet customer demand while reducing costs.
Many businesses offer customer services online (these electronic services
are often called e-business), often 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
In response to a request from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National
Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space
Sciences in the summer of 2004 to conduct a study of Principal-Investigator (PI)-led missions in the space
sciences. (Appendix A includes brief biographies of the committee members and staff.