The Institute of Medicine convened the Clinical Research Roundtable (CRR) in early 2000 to provide
a forum for stakeholders to discuss approaches to resolving both acute and long-term issues affecting
the Clinical Research Enterprise. It strives to enhance mutual understanding of clinical research
between the scientific community and the general public, while improving the public’s understanding of
and participation in clinical studies.
The objective of the past work was to capture the main processes, both
biophysical and economic, to reproduce them in a virtual world similar to reality. There have been two stages. In a first step, the team tried to select relevant knowledge to set-up a first conceptual model. As an hydrological model was already developed (Hoanh, et al. 2001), the emphasis was put on the economic and social processes. The first idea was to work on the interactions between decisions making at different scales.
The main purpose of this study was to analyse what strategies small and medium businesses
actually adopt when confronted with a major crisis such as a fire, flood or similar
catastrophe, and determine what factors proved vital to the survival of the business.
Up until this study, the research in the area has been focused on large public companies.
Models represent a powerful tool to describe and analyze business
requirements. You can develop extremely complex models that provide detail
about how a system currently works, or develop models that describe business
processes to users and stakeholders.
In this activity, you will discuss how you can use models to describe and
analyze business processes and requirements.
Throughout Europe, savings banks share common values, such as local ties, a positive attitude
to all customers not excluding certain categories of clients, together with a socially responsi-
ble behaviour. Savings banks therefore embody a “stakeholder” model, seeking to bring value
and return to the whole community of stakeholders, which surround them (investors, suppli-
ers, customers, employees and the local community in which they operate).
The balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement was originally
developed in the private sector4. If measurement focuses on sales and profits
managers can appear successful in the short term while ignoring long term
development of the business, for example customer relations or staff training. The
balanced scorecard approach tackles this by measuring both the ultimate outcome of
the business, and aspects of the business that need to be maintained in the long term.
It is balanced between financial and non-financial measures and across stakeholders....
The business of government is complex. What matters to the public about performance of government
cannot meaningfully captured in one, or even a dozen performance measures. Given the sophisticated
demands for information from a wide range of stakeholders, including Parliament, government must
respond in kind with world-class performance measurement and reporting systems.
Performance information is a cornerstone of our commitment to modernise government.
The World Bank recognizes that large-scale agricultural investment poses
significant challenges that can be addressed successfully only if stakeholders
collaborate effectively. Together with the Food and Agricultural Organization
of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development,
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and other partners, it
has formulated seven principles that all involved should adhere to for invest-
ments to do no harm, be sustainable, and contribute to development. These
principles are summarized in box 1.
In 2002, methodological issues around time series analyses of air pollution and health attracted
the attention of the scienti¯c community, policy makers, the press, and the diverse stakeholders con-
cerned with air pollution.
Of course, measuring culture exactly is not possible. The gap analysis always contains
subjective elements rather than quantifiable, neutrally measurable evaluations.
Therefore, the tool serves as a proxy to become sensitized towards cultural differences. How
big is the culture gap between myself as the project manager, for instance, and my customer? This
is also called “cultural distance”.
The gap analysis provides the management team of the international project with valuable
input for the stakeholder management process.
When the price of gasoline goes up, people curtail their driving to some extent, but don’t
immediately scrap their SUVs and rush out and buy more fuel-efficient automobiles or
electric cars. Similarly, when the price of electricity rises, people don’t replace their air
conditioners and refrigerators with the most modern, energy-saving models right away.
There are three significant issues raised by this kind of example. First, such changes
may be transitory or permanent, and people reasonably react differently to temporary
changes than to permanent changes.
Against this backdrop, UNEP has developed the Medium-term Strategy 2010–2013 in consultation with
the UNEP Committee of Permanent Representatives, the secretariats of UNEP-administered multilateral
environmental agreements and representatives of civil society and the private sector.
The Medium-term Strategy sets out the next phase in the evolution of UNEP as it becomes a more
effective, efficient and results-focused entity, meeting the expectations of Governments and its
stakeholders in responding to global environmental challenges and opportunities. ...
In this module, students will learn about security policies and procedures for an
organization and general strategies for creating policies and procedures. The
Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) process model provides a
comprehensive framework that students can use to create a security design. To
ensure that key stakeholders support the design and that students have the
necessary experts together to create a successful design, students will learn how
to assemble a security design team.
The dominant model of the ¢rm in Western economies is the limited liability company
owned by shareholders, but the form varies signi¢cantly between countries. In some
countries the control rights of the owners are limited by powers given to stakeholders
who may share in the appointment and supervision of managers and in the determination
of the enterprise’s objectives. In Germany, for example, large companies recognize
the role of workers and other groups by giving them half the positions on the
supervisory board that oversees the management board (Douma 1997).
Since 2005, the international development
perspectives have broadened, with new funding
sources, partnerships and configurations of
stakeholders. Global public-health initiatives
such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and
Immunisation (GAVI) and the Global Fund to fight
AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) have
matured their operations and increasingly become
significant sources of revenue for national health
budgets in many low-income countries.
Destination marketing is increasingly becoming extremely competitive worldwide. This paper
explains the destination concept and attempts to synthesise several models for strategic marketing
and management of destinations. It provides an overview of several techniques widely used and
illustrates examples from around the world. The paper also explains that marketing of destinations
should balance the strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local
Models are an initial useful starting point and can assist in a more structured and ordered approach to the
planning of events. There is no one model which fits all. It is for the event organizer to perhaps select and
engage with a model he / she finds useful, and one which they can understand, share with their colleagues /
stakeholders and add to or detract from.
These models are not set in stone, they need to be reviewed, but they may well assist as a reference point. As
a visual representation of the key areas of the event planning...
Once the SRS has been approved, implementation begins. Programming teams have many options:
The programmers can simply start building the code and create the objects and user interface elements.
Designers can build a user interface prototype to demonstrate to the users, stakeholders and the rest of the team. Any code used to develop the prototype is typically thrown away once the design has been finalized.
Pictures, flow charts, data flow diagrams, database design diagrams and other visual tools can be used to determine aspects of the design and architecture.
Game theory provides a powerful mathematical framework that can accommodate the preferences and requirements of various stakeholders in a given process as regards the outcome of the process. The chapters' contents in this book will give an impetus to the application of game theory to the modeling and analysis of modern communication, biology engineering, transportation, etc...
PSI and YouthAIDS rely on partnership, and they work to harness different capabilities
and strengths from their partners to enhance end results. Indeed, because all of
PSI/YouthAIDS’ programmatic work is conducted in-country, it cannot operate
effectively or efficiently as a global organization without local cooperation and
knowledge. Partnership helps to avoid duplication of effort and also works to maximize
health impact given limited budget.