World cocoa price has fallen by some 48% over the past three years, with direct impacts on the incomes, health and nutrition of cocoa producers and their family in the two major producing countries: Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, with some 41% and 22% of world output, respectively. The impact of the price drop has been far different in the two countries because of the greater age of plantations, market liberalisation, presence of free agents in the marketing channel, and much greater socio-political instability in one country: Côte d’Ivoire.
Ownership rates across all age groups increased between 1985 and 2003. Again, this is a well-
documented and understood change that has been driven by a number of economic factors,
including, but not limited to, falling interest rates, rising standards of living, public policies
helping low- and middle-income families afford home ownership.
Among the elderly population, the ownership rate for population 85 and over exhibited the
highest increase – i.e., 16 percentage points. Data show that the ownership rate peaks at the
age 62 to 74.
In this chapter you will see how economic growth differs around the world, consider why productivity is the key determinant of a country’s standard of living, analyze the factors that determine a country’s a country’s, examine how a country’s policies influence its productivity growth.
Chapter 2 - Comparative advantage. Chapter 2 goes beyond individual decision making to consider trade among both individuals and countries. An important reason for trade is the Principle of Comparative Advantage: by specializing in the production of particular goods and services, people and countries enhance their productivity and raise standards of living.
Any change in the growth rate of the economy will have a great influence on the level of economic activity and per capita real GDP in the future. Public policies can be designed that enhance the determinants of economic growth identified in this chapter. By increasing the rate of economic growth, we can improve our own future standard of living.
In this chapter we explored the two most important problems that market economies face unemployment and inflation. Economists have devised specific definitions and specialized tools to define and measure both unemployment and inflation. Policymakers keep close watch on both because of their negative effects on society's standard of living.
Utilization of RCH services and their linkages with basic demographic parameters and
socioeconomic developmental factors have often been argued and highlighted in the theoretical
and empirical literature. The NPP-2000 also affirms the provision of quality RCH services and
an informed choice of contraception alongwith women empowerment characterized by
improvements in women's educational standards, working conditions and autonomy.
According to Adam Smith, money originated in man’s rational effort to meet the necessity of finding some medium of exchange. Money is responsible for increasing the production and thus adds to the creation of wealth and also in accelerating consumption with the concomitant rise in the standard of living of the people.
Accounting is the most employable, sought-after major for 2009, according to entrylevel job site CollegeGrad.com. One reason for this interest is found in the statement by former Secretary of the Treasury and Economic Advisor to the President, Lawrence Summers. He noted that the single-most important innovation shaping our capital markets was the idea of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We agree with Mr. Summers. Relevant and reliable financial information is a necessity for viable capital markets.
Quality control is a standard which certainly has become a style of living. With the improvement of technology every day, we meet new and complicated devices and methods in different fields. Quality control explains the directed use of testing to measure the achievement of a specific standard. It is the process, procedures and authority used to accept or reject all components, drug product containers, closures, in-process materials, packaging material, labeling and drug products, and the authority to review production records to assure that no errors have occurred....
If the 20th century could be characterized by the rapid increase in the production and
consumption of materials that helped improving the standards of living, then the 21st
certainly has many elements to qualify as the century of recycling. Since the duration
of life of a number of wastes is very small (roughly 40% have duration of life smaller
than one month), there is a vast waste stream that reaches each year to the final
recipients creating a serious environmental problem.
Energy and human life are closely liked. Civilization, present and future, depends on energy
to provide the facilities the human race needs.
The world being created today will determine the outcome of a number of issues and
conflicting demands, which we only now beginning to identify. Whilst their resolution will
fashion the future world, the immediate challenge is to provide enough energy, water and
food, to raise the standard of living of the ever-increasing world population without
“imperiling our irreplaceable environment”....
Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960,
and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed:
– to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a
rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial
stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;
– to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member
countries in the process of economic development; and
– to co...
Innovation is the strong driver of economic growth, new industries
and jobs, and a high standard of living, both in the United States and
globally. In the last half-century, innovation in turn has been increasingly
driven by educated people and the knowledge they produce, particularly
though scientific and technological research and development.
Cumulatively, all our individual footprints make up the unsustainable total demand. The solution
to this problem is for people to take individual action to break down that large footprint. We need
to change the way we live to combat climate change, conserve the world’s forests and protect our
No-one wakes up in the morning and consciously decides to contribute to global warming; to help
cut down a tropical rainforest; or to deprive future generations of a decent standard of living.
Vietnam has experienced an impressive growth over the last two
However, reforms so far are insufficient to move Vietnam to a middle
The next several years will determine whether Vietnam will follow the
experience of Korea, or the Philippines.
Vietnam’s reform have been piecemeal and reactive.
Improving Vietnam’s standard of living will require a long term
– A set of interrelated policy changes, institutional structures, and
rigorous implementation mechanisms....
The city is a complex amalgamation of numerous phenomena, based on a multiplicity of
dynamic interactions. Due to an increase in density, an almost continuous cooperation
between the inhabitants occurs often resulting in socio-economic improvement. Considering
the constant development of living standards – infrastructure, production and
consumption – the city and urbanization should generally be regarded as something positive
without thereby disguising problems of social inequality and violence.
Chapter 1 - Taking risks and making profits within the dynamic business environment. In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Describe the relationship between profit and risk, and show how businesses and nonprofits can raise the standard of living for all; compare and contrast being an entrepreneur and working for others; analyze the effects of the economic environment and taxes on businesses;...
There are three problems with the above set of reasonings. First, conventional indices of
the standard of living pertain to commodity production, not to the natural-resource base onwhich
production depends. Statistics on pastmovements ofworld (or regional) income and agricultural
production say nothing about this base. They don’t say if increases in GNP per head in a country
aren’t being realized by means of a depletion of natural capital (e.g., ecosystem functioning).
Most important, liberals have not realized that supporting the consumerist standard of living is a huge burden for most Americans, leaving us without enough time for our families and for our own interests. They have not realized that most of us would be better off if we could downshift economically and have more free time rather than consuming more. Environmentalists focus on the problems caused by economic growth, but they