There are several actors involved in the development
of marketing communications and their subsequent
dissemination to the target audience. The key relevant
actors are illustrated in Figure 3. Food manufacturers and
food retailers (and their respective trade associations
and representative bodies) range from large global food
and non-alcoholic beverage producers to small local
vendors and kiosks, including supermarkets and quick-
service restaurant chains.
Interest rate exposure is generally described as the risk of a reduction in a pro-
jected or anticipated measure of net interest income (target measure) resulting
from changes in market interest rates.
Yet from a practical perspective such a
deﬁ nition is somewhat ﬂ awed, as the use of an anticipated (or projected) mea-
sure of net interest income is fraught with risks. Any inappropriate assum ption
in the projection phase will produce an inaccurate target measure and, conse-
quently, result in an inaccurate assessment of interest rate risk.
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) provided daily data on air pollution levels
collected at the nine monitoring stations located throughout the city. Six of these monitors have
been in operation since 1987 and are operated directly by the CPCB. The other three monitors,
added to the monitoring network in 1990, are operated on behalf of the CPCB by the National
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI).
In 2009 and 2010, the 15th anniversaries of the Cairo
and Beijing conferences, respectively, were
commemorated. The year 2010 also marks the 10th
anniversary of the Millennium Summit, from which
emerged the Millennium Development Goals.
Encouragingly, with so much attention focused on these
landmark events, we have seen no wavering of
commitment to the issues they defined. There has been
acknowledgement, however, of how much remains to be
accomplished if the visions inspired by them are
to become actualized.
Operationally, the problem is that, as noted earlier, while value-based management provides a criterion for strategies
to be selected and evaluated, it does not say how these strategies can be constructed. Before a strategy can be
put forward for SVA, a method for identifying the need for strategic change must exist. Then there must be a
process of constructing strategic options that have prospects of creating competitive advantage and enabling the
business to generate cash ﬂows that exceed costs including the cost of capital.
We analyze data from the 1993 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS1), distinct in its
collection of a broad array of current and retrospective socio-economic and health information
among individuals, households, and communities2
. The selection of households is
representative of 83% of the Indonesian population, thus capturing the cultural and economic
diversity among Indonesia’s regional populations.
Studies that estimate the effect on consumption of changes in housing wealth
and stock market wealth often ﬁnd that one of the coefﬁcients is insigniﬁcant.
For example, Tan and Voss (2003) use Australian data and ﬁnd a strong long-
run effect of stock market wealth but an insigniﬁcant housing wealth effect. In
addition, Case, Quigley and Shiller (2001) report a number of US studies that
use aggregate level or household level data and have had difﬁculty in ﬁnding
a signiﬁcant housing wealth effect.
The Master’s programme is primarily geared to graduates
who hold academic or Bachelor’s degrees in business from
a university or university of applied sciences. Those with
another university or Bachelor’s degree may be admitted if
they have earned at least 6 credits in business administra-
tion and 6 credits in economics or economic geography.
Students with no background in tourism at the time of
enrolment will have opportunities to acquire these credits
over the course of the first two semesters.
Common mental health disorders, such as depression, generalised anxiety
disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder
, may affect
up to 15% of the population at any one time. Depression and anxiety
disorders can have a lifelong course of relapse and remission. There is
considerable variation in the severity of common mental health disorders, but
all can be associated with significant long-term disability.
The third step involved examining the relationship between Spanish performance at the
end of second grade and English performance at the end of third grade and end of fourth
grade through a series of regression analyses. This technique allowed us to test the
relationships between initial factors (initial reading performance in Spanish) and outcome
factors (performance in English reading at the end of third and fourth grades), controlling
for initial performance on other factors that could influence this relationship.
The dynamic nature of the Jepara industrial complex also affects the Indonesian wood products
chain, attracting timber produced from forests located throughout Central Java (Figure 1) and
beyond, including the outer islands. Thousands of trucks and pickups bring logs into the district
from distant places, including state and community forest plantations.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) was developed during the same period as PEM, in the
early 1990’s. PGP was originally designed for securing Internet mail. PGP shares
most technical features, such as digital signatures and public-key based encryption,
with PEM. Like PEMit uses a proprietary, non-MIME-compatible, message format
. However, later MIME-compatible variations have evolved . PGP’s main
diﬀerence from other proposals is its key management system. It does not use
X.509 Certiﬁcates, but rather a proprietary syntax.
Hence, the average age of the air pollution related fatalities is much higher than for victims of fatal
road accidents (30-40 years of age).
Theoretical as well as empirical evidence indicates a decreasing WTP with increasing age, with
reduced remaining life expectancy and with reduced quality of life. For the present study, the
relationship adopted is provided by the latest research of Jones-Lee.
Take your four boxes and lay them out on your base
using the plan on page 2. Check you are happy with the
height of each ‘building’. You can make the cereal boxes
into shorter buildings by carefully cutting to size – this
can be easier if you flatten each box first, then reform
using sticky tape to secure.
Romans usually made their walls out of stone and covered them with cement to
make the walls smooth and very strong. Create the Roman look by covering each of
the sides of your boxes with cream-coloured paper. You can paint white paper cream
by mixing white paint with a dash...
The term usually used to describe the way insurance companies decide
when to pay benefits is “benefit triggers.” This term refers to the criteria
and the methods that the insurance company uses to evaluate when you
are eligible for benefits, and the conditions you must meet to receive
benefits. This is an important part of a long-term care insurance policy.
Look at it carefully as you shop. The policy and the outline of coverage
usually describe the benefit triggers. Look for a section called “Eligibility for
the Payment of Benefits” or simply “Eligibility for Benefits.
I came to view the process by which a central bank manages
the interbank rate in a different light a few years ago in a paper
on the zero bound on interest rate policy.
Obviously, at the
zero bound it is no longer possible for a central bank to operate
on the interest opportunity cost spread. The spread is zero.
Nevertheless, a central bank still may be said to manage the
interbank rate when it is zero. Thus, something other than
open market operations and the interest opportunity cost
spread must matter for the implementation of interest rate
This report is intended to provide stakeholders — clients,
customers, non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), associates and
all those concerned about global climate change — with an update
on our progress toward our goals and commitments. We view it as
a bridge between our most recent Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
report, published in 2009, which includes environmental initiatives
from 2007 and 2008, and a comprehensive Bank of America
corporate social responsibility report planned for 2011, which will
also adhere to the GRI reporting framework.
Your education loan debt represents a serious financial
commitment that must be repaid. A default on any loan
engenders serious consequences, including possible
legal action against you by the lender or the government,
Law school graduate debt of $100,000 amounts to almost
$1,187 a month on a standard 10-year repayment plan.
Federal loans offer graduated and income-sensitive
repayment plans that lower monthly payment amounts
but increase the number of years of repayment.
Every new technology brings with it both excitement and anxiety. No sooner was the Internet upon us in the 1990s than anxiety arose over the ease of accessing pornography and other controversial content. In response, entrepreneurs soon developed filtering products. By the end of the decade, a new industry had emerged to create and market Internet filters.
These filters were highly imprecise. The problem was intrinsic to filtering technology.
Compared with the overall school district population, our survey sample is both whiter
and wealthier, an occurrence similar to previous surveys conducted in these school
districts (Schellenberg, personal communication, 2007).