State intervention

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  • This report describes interventions for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) at four sites in South Africa. The project sites are the Rustenburg and Orkney areas in the North West province, and the Kopanong and Matjhabeng municipalities in the Free State. The report highlights the knowledge, attitudes, practices, prevention, care and support issues concerning HIV/AIDS among the people located in these 4 areas.

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  • The principles and recommendations of the Kyiv Declaration on Women’s Health in Prison are important steps towards improving health systems and addressing the health needs of women involved in the criminal justice system. I hope that this report, which outlines the evidence and the expert opinions considered at the special conference held in Kyiv in November 2008, will convince all Member States to adopt and implement the Kyiv Declaration in fulfilment of their commitment to human rights and health promotion for all. ...

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  • Market structure, conduct performance analysis. Marketing channels for different products in agriculture and animal husbandry. State intervention and parastatals in agricultural marketing. Pricing of agricultural inputs and products. Buffer stocking and import policies for agricultural produce. Value addition and its impact on prices of agricultural commodities. Systems approach to agricultural marketing. Marketing costs, margins and market efficiency. Market integration-horizontal and vertical, spatial and temporal. Price integration between domestic and international markets.

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  • The new millennium has seen the birth of a new perspective that conflates research in solid-state physics, biological science as well as materials engineering. The perspective is one that recognizes that future new advances in all these areas will be based on a fundamental understanding of the atomic and molecular infrastructure of materials that has resulted from two centuries of chemistry. Major advances will be achieved when the novel behavior, in particular the quantum mechanical behavior, that nanoscale structures possess, can be controlled and harnessed....

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  • Mini-grants of up to $5000 were awarded to Kentucky, Michigan and Rhode Island, to meet the objectives of the 2007-2008 mini-grant program, including 1 ) the formation of a state team comprised of state MCH, Planned Parenthood and ACOG representatives who would lead an effort to increase the use of the state Quitline, and 2) the development of an action plan to accomplish the goal of increasing use of the state tobacco Quitline.

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  • Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health pro- fessional. This booklet offers an overview of those challenges, focusing on acute conditions, with patterns that point to par- ticular agents and suggestions for appropriate remedial action. The individual presenting with environmentally associated symptoms is apt to have been exposed to airborne substances originating not outdoors, but indoors. Studies from the United States and Europe show that persons in industrial- ized nations spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors1.

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  • Domains of influence to consider when planning intervention activities for reaching a target audience from multiple perspectives. These four domains, known as the “Four P’s of Marketing,” include: product, price, place, and promotion. (See also, Policy.) Market Research Research designed to enhance your understanding of the target audience’s characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, values, behaviors, determinants, benefits, and barriers to behavior change in order to create a strategy for social marketing programs. Also called consumer or audience research.

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  • Previous interventions had been aimed at mothers of children, using participation in the WIC program as a channel for communication. The formative research and conversations with the African American community suggested that grandmothers were more frequently the chitterlings preparers and would serve as role models to younger women. Thus, the primary target audience was women who prepare chitterlings — older, African American women who, as grandmothers, are often also caregivers for infants.

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  • My interest in work-related ill-health had more contemporary origins. I have had an academic and personal interest in women’s health in general for many years and in the early 1980s I became a member of a small women’s group who were concerned about the hazards women faced in their work.

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  • One of the key characteristics of agriculture is the inherent production risks facing producers from adverse weather, pests, and diseases. These risks have been used to justify government intervention in the form of disaster assistance payments, emergency loans, livestock feed assistance programs, crop insurance, and other subsidized assistance schemes. Yet, while government intervention to provide assistance has been widely supported in the United States, the form of assistance has been much debated.

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  • Serous or “body cavity fluids” are usually collected with aseptic technique by needle puncture and aspiration of the body cavity fluid. Methods for obtaining the specimen vary depending upon the site. Fluids are best collected into a dry container and submitted in the fresh state to the laboratory. 7 Adding 3-5 IU heparin/mL to a container prior to obtaining a bloody sample will usually inhibit clotting and not adversely affect morphology. If delay in transportation to the laboratory is unavoidable, most fluids may be kept refrigerated (4ºC) up to 72 hours.

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  • As with all medical practice in the United States, safety in reproductive medicine is assured by a combination of state and federal government regulation and professional self-regulation that includes facility accreditation and practitioner certification. On the state level, there is a strict physician licensure system. On the federal level, several agencies enforce standards and practices designed to protect public health and safety. Several national groups accredit laboratories as well.

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  • Governments The U.S. Treasury and state and local governments raise large sums in the money market. The Treasury raises funds in the money market by selling short-term obligations of the U.S. government called Treasury bills. Bills have the largest volume outstanding and the most active secondary market of any money market instrument. Because bills are generally considered to be free of default risk, while other money market instruments have some default risk, bills typically have the lowest interest rate at a given maturity.

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  • The decision by the US and UK governments to use military force against Iraq in 2003 and the subsequent occupation and administration of that State have brought into sharp focus fundamental fault lines in international law. The deci- sion to invade, the conduct of the war and occupation, and the mechanisms used to administer the country all challenge the international legal community, placing it at a crossroads.

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  • In addition to retained earnings or profi ts, fi rms can access investment capital from a number of other sources: banks; the sharemarket; private equity; the venture capital market; and informal capital markets. Improving fi nancial development in these markets can stimulate economic growth. The Milken Institute’s Capital Access Index evaluates the ability of business to access capital across all sources. New Zealand is ranked 15th in the OECD on this index, at the OECD mean and below countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Denmark, and Australia.

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  • In 2008, the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) – the leading research agency in Brazil – in collaboration with the Research Foundations of the various Brazilian states, called for the creation of “National Institutes of Science and Technology” (CNPq), one of the most important research initiatives that Brazil has seen. CNPq’s National Institutes were conceptualized to be built upon collaborative work of national and international research groups focused on cutting edge areas of science or areas of national priority.

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  • In the long-term perspective, success in achieving both consumer benefits and increasing competitiveness depends on the quality of basic research. In often highly specialised areas, research co-operation between scientists in different member states is of utmost importance to achieve and maintain a high level of quality. Within EU research activities, the transnational nature of research should hence be dealt with by combining complementary expertise in different countries, also leading to increased research productivity through economies of scale....

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  • Since the first demonstration of transradial approach feasibility in 1989, by Lucien Campeau, many studies have confirmed this initial experience and especially its safety and performances compared to transfemoral route. Nevertheless, a recent study reports that less than 2% of percutaneous coronary interventions were performed by a transradial approach in the United States between 2004 and 2007(1). The persistent discrepancy between current practice in vascular access site choice and known advantages of a radial access needs to be clarified, enlightened by recent data....

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  • A foreign company can commence operations in India by incorporating a company under the Companies Act as a subsidiary (including a wholly owned subsidiary) or as a joint venture company. Private or public companies are formed by first obtaining name availability approval, followed by registering the memorandum and articles of association and prescribed forms with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) in the state in which the registered office is to be located. If the documents are in order, the ROC will issue a certificate of incorporation.

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  • The purpose of this technical note is to provide health professionals in United Nations agencies, non- governmental organizations, donor agencies and local authorities working with populations affected by emergencies with up-to-date technical guidance on the major communicable disease threats faced by the cyclone-affected population in Myanmar. The endemic and epidemic-prone diseases indicated have been selected on the basis of the burden of morbidity, mortality and epidemic potential in the area, as previously documented by WHO.

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