This is the third edition of a physical chemistry textbook designed for a two-semester
undergraduate physical chemistry course. The physical chemistry course is often the
ﬁrst opportunity that a student has to synthesize descriptive, theoretical, and mathe-
matical knowledge about chemistry into a coherent whole. To facilitate this synthe-
sis, the book is constructed about the idea of deﬁning a system, studying the states
in which it might be found, and analyzing the processes by which it can change
This is a demonstration of a voice dialer, implemented as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). A realtime graphical display shows the POMDP’s probability distribution over different possible dialog states, and shows how system output is generated and selected. The system demonstrated here includes several recent advances, including an action selection mechanism which uniﬁes a hand-crafted controller and reinforcement learning. The voice dialer itself is in use today in AT&T Labs and receives daily calls. ...
Our goal is to improve the contextual appropriateness of spoken output in a dialogue system. We explore the use of the information state to determine the information structure of system utterances. We concentrate on the realization of information structure by intonation. We present the results of evaluating the contextual appropriateness of varied system output produced with a text-to-speech synthesis system that supports intonation annotation.
A fault may disrupt operation in a system by damaging the states of some data and processes. The focus of recovery is to restore some data or process(es) to a consistent state such that normal operation can be restored. Fault tolerance provides uninterrupted operation of a system despite faults. This chapter discusses recovery and fault tolerance techniques used in a distributed operating system. Resiliency, which is a technique for minimizing the impact of a fault, is also discussed.
The capital constraints of the organization may necessitate a top‐down budgeting process.
However, a comprehensive analysis of need with a standardized method of prioritizing capital
spend is equally required.
Semantic parsing is the task of mapping natural language sentences into complete formal meaning representations which a computer can execute for some domain-speciﬁc application. This is a challenging task and is critical for developing computing systems that can understand and process natural language input, for example, a computing system that answers natural language queries about a database, or a robot that takes commands in natural language.
A slight loss of refrigerant is recognized by ‘bubbles’ in the liquid-indicating
sight glass installed in the liquid line of a system, a loss of performance,
partial frosting of the evaporator and lower than normal operating pressures.
Refrigerant may be added in vapour form to the low side of the system if the
refrigerant is azeotropic such as R502. This means that it reacts as a single
The zeotropic refrigerant blends do not react in a similar manner and they
should be added to a system in liquid form. ...
This paper describes the ﬁrst system for large-scale acquisition of subcategorization frames (SCFs) from English corpus data which can be used to acquire comprehensive lexicons for verbs, nouns and adjectives. The system incorporates an extensive rulebased classiﬁer which identiﬁes 168 verbal, 37 adjectival and 31 nominal frames from grammatical relations (GRs) output by a robust parser. The system achieves state-ofthe-art performance on all three sets.
It is suggested in this paper that t w o - l e v e l morphology theory (Kay, Koskenniemi) can be extended to include morphological tone. This extension treats phonological features as I/O tapes for Finite State Transducers in a parallel sequential incrementation (PSI) architecture; phonological processes (e.g. assimilation) are seen as variants of an elementary unification operation over feature tapes (linear unification phonology, LUP).
The methodology of organizational diagnosis is to establish the widely shared understanding of a system and, based on that understanding, to determine whether change is desirable. By stating and then maintaining that the initial work in the client system is diagnosis, consultants provide clients with bases against which they can be held accountable.
Abstract This paper presents an implemented approach to part-mating of three-dimensional non-cylindrical parts with a 6 DOF manipulator, considering uncertainties in modeling, sensing and control. The core of the proposed solution is a reinforcement learning algorithm for selecting the actions that achieve the goal in the minimum number of steps. Position and force sensor values are encoded in the state of the system by means of a neural network. Experimental results are presented for the insertion of diﬀerent parts – circular, quadrangular and triangular prisms – in three dimensions.
a-lactalbumin (LA) in its molten globule (MG) state at low pH forms
amyloid fibrils. Here, we have studied the aggregation propensities of LA
derivatives characterized by a single peptide bond fission (1–40⁄41–123,
named Th1-LA) or a deletion of a chain segment of 12 amino acid resi-dues located at the level of the b-subdomain of the native protein (1–
40⁄53–123, named desb-LA). We have also compared the early stages of
the aggregation process of these LA derivatives with those of intact LA....
We demonstrate a new development environment1 “Information State Update” dialogue systems which allows non-expert developers to produce complete spoken dialogue systems based only on a Business Process Model (BPM) describing their application (e.g. banking, cinema booking, shopping, restaurant information). The environment includes automatic generation of Grammatical Framework (GF) grammars for robust interpretation of spontaneous speech, and uses application databases to generate lexical entries and grammar rules.
During Vietnam’s command economy, state companie s played an important role in trading industrial commodities and agricultural products. Recent transformation toward a market-oriented economy with government intervention has stressed the emergence of new actors, particularly private traders who promote the development of the trading system, market competition and enhanced agricultural production.
This chapter begins by discussing how an application creates processes through system calls and how the presence of many processes achieves concurrency and parallelism within the application. It then describes how the operating system manages a process - how it uses the notion of process state to keep track of what a process is doing and how it reflects the effect of an event on states of affected processes. The chapter also introduces the notion of threads, describes their benefits, and illustrates their features.
Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 1992, the state of the art of fiber-optic communication systems has advanced dramatically despite the relatively short period of only 10 years between the first and third editions. For example, the highest capacity of commercial fiber-optic links available in 1992 was only 2.5 Gb/s.
A mere 4 years later, the wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems with the total capacity of 40 Gb/s became available commercially.
Labour is the most important activity of a human being creating both material products and
social values. High labour productivity, quality and efficiency are significant factors which
determine the level of development of a country.
By regulating the rights and obligations of employees and employers, labour standards, and
labour utilization and management, the Labour Code not only contributes increased
production but also plays an important role in society and in the legal system of the nation....
This volume consists of a collection of current studies on free electron lasers. Free
Electron Lasers covers the analysis of fundamentals and questions of design of these
devices functioning from the infrared to ultraviolet or xuv wavelength regimes. In
addition to the comparison with conventional lasers, analyses of some related topics
concerning near-field and cavity electrodynamics, compact and table-top
arrangements and strong radiation–induced exotic states of matter are presented.