Statistical evidence

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  • Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences distills the overwhelming amount of material covered in introductory statistics courses into a handy, practical resource for students and professionals. This accessible guide covers basic to advanced concepts in a clear, concrete, and readable style. Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences guides you to a better understanding of basic concepts of statistical methods. Numerous practical tips are presented for selecting appropriate statistical procedures.

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  • Recent research presents conflicting evidence on whether word sense disambiguation (WSD) systems can help to improve the performance of statistical machine translation (MT) systems. In this paper, we successfully integrate a state-of-the-art WSD system into a state-of-the-art hierarchical phrase-based MT system, Hiero. We show for the first time that integrating a WSD system improves the performance of a state-ofthe-art statistical MT system on an actual translation task. Furthermore, the improvement is statistically significant. ...

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  • Medicine without statistics is quackery; statistics without medicine is numerology. Perhaps this is the main reason why clinicians should care about statistics. Statistics in medicine began in the early nineteenth century (it was called “the numerical method” then) and its debut involved disproving the most common and widely accepted medical treatment for millennia: bleeding. From ancient Rome until 1900, all physicians – from Galen to Avicenna to Benjamin Rush – strongly and clearly advocated bleeding as the treatment for most medical illnesses.

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  • User-adviser dialogues were collected in a typed Wizardof-Oz study (=man-behind-the-curtain study*). Thirty-two users had to solve simple statistics problems using an unfamiliar statistical package. Users received help on how to use the statistical package by typing utterances to what they believed was a computerized adviser. The observed limited set of users' grammatical and ungrammatical forms demonstrates the sufficiency of a very restricted grammar of English for a natural language interface to an advisory sys* tem.

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  • Chapter 8 - Research principles and evidence‐based practice. This chapter include objectives: Explain the importance of EMS research, distinguish between types of EMS research, outline 10 steps to perform research identified in this chapter, define evidence‐based practice, describe criteria to evaluate when reading a research paper.

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  • Kiểm định giả thuyết nhằm xác định xem có đủ chứng cứ thống kê (statistical evidence) để tin tưởng vào một thông số nào đó không. – Trọng lượng trung bình của 1 sản phẩm sản xuất. – Thói quen, hành vi tiêu dùng của nhóm dân cư. – Thay đổi trước khi có dự án và sau khi có dự án.

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  • Learning mathematics in the middle grades is a critical component in the education of our nation’s youth. The mathematics foundation laid during these years provides students with the skills and knowledge to study higher level mathematics during high school, provides the necessary mathematical base for success in other disciplines such as science, and lays the groundwork for mathematically literate citizens. A variety of evidence suggests that the mathematics education landscape is shifting and evolving rapidly....

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  • Senator Edwards is not alone in observing a lack of accountability in America’s democracy. Indeed, both popular and academic media offer considerable support for this sentiment. The popular Cable News Network (CNN) criticized “government, big business, and special interest groups” for enriching themselves at the expense of the common electorate and characterized elected offices as “accountability free zones” while arguing that “our government no longer works for us.”2 Important scholars like John Matsusaka have added weight to this type of argument.

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  • This introductory textbook explores the role of research in health care and focuses in particular on the importance of organizing and describing research data using basic statistics. The goal of the text is to teach students how to analyze data and present the results of evidence-based data analysis. Based on the commonly-used SPSS software, a comprehensive range of statistical techniques—both parametric and non-parametric—are presented and explained.

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  • In seminars and workshops over the past 40 years, I have had the good fortune to be able to discuss style with several thousand specialists in engineering, medicine, and science. This book presents the essence of our discussions and some supporting statistical evidence. I wish to acknowledge my debt to the participants in those seminars, who listened to my ideas, tried them out, and told me which were useful and which were not. I hope this presentation of the ‘useful’ category will contribute to the gradual improvement of standards of professional communication....

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  • Climate change is a long-term shift in the statistics of the weather (including its averages). For example, it could show up as a change in climate normalcy (expected average values for temperature and precipitation) for a given place and time of year, from one decade to the next. We know that the global climate is currently changing. The last decade of the 20th Century and the beginning of the 21st have been the warmest periods in the entire global instrumental temperature record, starting in the mid-19th century.

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  • The discussion of the properties of relative international prices has been closely tied with a discussion on the nature of the pricing decisions by ¯rms. 5 The observed slow pass-through of exchange rate changes to consumer prices and deviations from the law of one price for traded goods are consistent with prices of imported goods that are sticky in the currency of the consumer (local currency pricing). This pricing mechanism, however, dampens the expenditure-switching e®ect of nominal exchange rate movements.

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  • The Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research provides a compilation of definitions and discussions of terms that are commonly encountered in the nursing literature. In this third edition of our dictionary we have retained and revised most of the terms in the earlier versions and have added many new ones. The new terms are in response to evolutionary changes that have occurred over the intervening years. We have added entries for evidence-based practice and Internet research.

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  • The order of writing presented here highlights the importance of your results for defining the focus of your article. You should define the focus of your article based on the evidence you have. This way you can set the focus of your article relatively early and avoid unnecessary re-working when writing up the theory and other elements of the text. It is sensible to start writing an article by outlining the subject matter and content by a few bullet points or key words. This phase will act later as an aid in writing the introduction. After outlining the...

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  • The Central Bank today publishes statistics for Q1 2012 on investment funds (IFs) resident in Ireland. Irish resident IFs expanded strongly in Q1 2012, driven by performing global equity markets and apparent expanding investor confidence evident in new subscriptions. When reclassifications are excluded, IFs, measured by total shares/units in issue, increased in value to €819.8 billion at end Q1 2012, up from €768.7 billion at end Q4 2011. This increase is accounted for by revaluations of €34.9 billion and positive net transactions of €16.2 billion. ...

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  • In many developed nations, significant progress has been made in reducing direct discharges of pollutants into water bodies, primarily through increased treatment of industrial wastewater before it is discharged. An OECD report found that in member countries in the past several decades, “industrial discharges of heavy metals and persistent chemicals have been reduced by 70-to-90 percent or more in most cases” (OECD 2006).

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  • In official statistics, it is not always easy to distinguish independently owned companies. If, for example, employment data is collected at the establishment level then it is likely that these statistics will include a significant proportion of units owned by larger firms. Yet, from a policy viewpoint the characteristics of the owner-managed independent business are substantially different from those of the small subsidiary firm of a large organisation. Such characteristics radically affect SME responses to policy initiatives.

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  • Muirhead (1987) reviews the large literature on shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix in finite-sample statistical decision theory. All these estimators suffer from at least two severe drawbacks, either of which is enough to make them ill-suited to stock returns: (i) they break down when N T; (ii) they do not exploit the a priori knowledge that stock returns tend to be positively correlated to one another.

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  • Michael Minges prepared this report. Tim Kelly drafted the mobile section. Nathalie Delmas was responsible for formatting and production. The report is based on field research carried out from 3 to 6 December 2002 as well as articles and reports noted in the document. The assistance of the Office of the Telecommunication Authority, particularly M. H. Au and Sara Lam, was indispensable and highly appreciated.

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  • Only statistical inference with stationary variables provides valid results. In simple words, this is because if variables are non-stationary then any correlation between the explanatory and the dependent variable could be due to the trending in both variables that is caused by a third variable not included in the model. We tested for the non-stationarity of the variables in our model formally with the help of Levin, Lin and Chu’s (2002) unit root test for panel data.

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