Bài giảng "Tin học ứng dụng - Chương 2: Các hàm thống kê" giới thiệu tới người đọc các nội dung: Các hàm thống kê (Statistical Functions), giới thiệu một số hàm thống kê. Hi vọng đây sẽ là một tài liệu hữu ích dành cho các bạn sinh viên Công nghệ thông tin dùng làm tài liệu học tập và nghiên cứu.
Probability and statistics are concerned with events which occur by chance. Examples
include occurrence of accidents, errors of measurements, production of defective and
nondefective items from a production line, and various games of chance, such as
drawing a card from a well-mixed deck, flipping a coin, or throwing a symmetrical
six-sided die. In each case we may have some knowledge of the likelihood of various
possible results, but we cannot predict with any certainty the outcome of any particular
What do you need to calculate? Manufacturing output? A curve for test scores? Sports stats? You and Excel can do it, and this non-intimidating guide shows you how. It demystifies the different types of statistics, how Excel functions and formulas work, the meaning of means and medians, how to interpret your figures, and more - in plain English.
This is the standard textbook for courses on probability and statistics, not substantially updated. While helping students to develop their problem-solving skills, the author motivates students with practical applications from various areas of ECE that demonstrate the relevance of probability theory to engineering practice. Included are chapter overviews, summaries, checklists of important terms, annotated references, and a wide selection of fully worked-out real-world examples.
Designed to exploit Oracle 10g's SQL, this book takes a comprehensive look at Oracle 10g's analytical functions, MODEL statements, and regular expressions. In addition, Advanced SQL Functions in Oracle 10g covers collection objects and object-oriented structures and introduces new Oracle 10g topics such as XML and statistical functions. The authors' logical and developmental approach to query building includes a review of older Oracle tools to help in the transition to newer material. This text will teach the reader how to: Format result sets with SQL*Plus reporting tools.
In addition to covering statistical methods, most of the existing books on
equating also focus on the practice of equating, the implications of test development
and test use for equating practice and policies, and the daily equating challenges
that need to be solved. In some sense, the scope of this book is narrower than of
other existing books: to view the equating and linking process as a statistical
This book is about using Microsoft Excel to
analyze your data. Microsoft Excel is an electronic
worksheet you can use to maintain lists; perform
mathematical, financial, and statistical calculations; create
charts; analyze your data with a PivotTable; and much
more. Excel can help you locate data, find trends in your
data, and present your data to others.
Each Excel file is a workbook. Each workbook can have
multiple worksheets. Worksheets are made up of rows
and columns of cells you use to enter information....
The Art of R Programming takes you on a guided tour of software development with R, from basic types and data structures to advanced topics like closures, recursion, and anonymous functions. No statistical knowledge is required, and your programming skills can range from hobbyist to pro.
Recent advances in genomic studies have stimulated synergetic research and development in many cross-disciplinary areas. Genomic data, especially the recent large-scale microarray gene expression data, represents enormous challenges for signal processing and statistics in processing these vast data to reveal the complex biological functionality. This perspective naturally leads to a new field, genomic signal processing (GSP)
We tackle the previously unaddressed problem of unsupervised determination of the optimal morphological segmentation for statistical machine translation (SMT) and propose a segmentation metric that takes into account both sides of the SMT training corpus. We formulate the objective function as the posterior probability of the training corpus according to a generative segmentation-translation model. We describe how the IBM Model-1 translation likelihood can be computed incrementally between adjacent segmentation states for efﬁcient computation. ...
In many natural language applications, there is a need to enrich syntactical parse trees. We present a statistical tree annotator augmenting nodes with additional information. The annotator is generic and can be applied to a variety of applications. We report 3 such applications in this paper: predicting function tags; predicting null elements; and predicting whether a tree constituent is projectable in machine translation. Our function tag prediction system outperforms signiﬁcantly published results. ...
Often, Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) between English and Korean suffers from null alignment. Previous studies have attempted to resolve this problem by removing unnecessary function words, or by reordering source sentences. However, the removal of function words can cause a serious loss in information. In this paper, we present a possible method of bridging the morpho-syntactic gap for EnglishKorean SMT.
We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG), a constraint-based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model. We report on the results of applying this system to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank. The model combines full and partial parsing techniques to reach full grammar coverage on unseen data. The treebank annotations are used to provide partially labeled data for discriminative statistical estimation using exponential models.
We present a framework for statistical machine translation of natural languages based on direct maximum entropy models, which contains the widely used source-channel approach as a special case. All knowledge sources are treated as feature functions, which depend on the source language sentence, the target language sentence and possible hidden variables. This approach allows a baseline machine translation system to be extended easily by adding new feature functions. We show that a baseline statistical machine translation system is signiﬁcantly improved using this approach. ...
A serious bottleneck of comparative parser evaluation is the fact that different parsers subscribe to different formal frameworks and theoretical assumptions. Converting outputs from one framework to another is less than optimal as it easily introduces noise into the process. Here we present a principled protocol for evaluating parsing results across frameworks based on function trees, tree generalization and edit distance metrics. This extends a previously proposed framework for cross-theory evaluation and allows us to compare a wider class of parsers. ...
In this paper, we extend current state-of-theart research on unsupervised acquisition of scripts, that is, stereotypical and frequently observed sequences of events. We design, evaluate and compare different methods for constructing models for script event prediction: given a partial chain of events in a script, predict other events that are likely to belong to the script.
In this chapter, you learned to: Define the terms state of nature, event, decision alternatives, payoff, and utility; organize information in a payoff table or a decision tree; compute opportunity loss and utility function; find an optimal decision alternative based on a given decision criterion; assess the expected value of additional information.
For languages with (semi-) free word order (such as German), labelling grammatical functions on top of phrase-structural constituent analyses is crucial for making them interpretable. Unfortunately, most statistical classiﬁers consider only local information for function labelling and fail to capture important restrictions on the distribution of core argument functions such as subject, object etc., namely that there is at most one subject (etc.) per clause.