# Statistical significance

Xem 1-20 trên 94 kết quả Statistical significance
• ### A Clinician’s Guide to Statistics and Epidemiology in Mental Health

Medicine without statistics is quackery; statistics without medicine is numerology. Perhaps this is the main reason why clinicians should care about statistics. Statistics in medicine began in the early nineteenth century (it was called “the numerical method” then) and its debut involved disproving the most common and widely accepted medical treatment for millennia: bleeding. From ancient Rome until 1900, all physicians – from Galen to Avicenna to Benjamin Rush – strongly and clearly advocated bleeding as the treatment for most medical illnesses.

• ### Business Statistics

A: Basically, statistics is the “science of data.” There are three main tasks in statistics: (A) collection and organization, (B) analysis, and (C) interpretation of data. (A) Collection and organization of data: We will see several methods of organizing data: graphically (through the use of charts and graphs) and numerically (through the use of tables of data). The type of organization we do depends on the type of analysis we wish to perform.

• ### Becoming a Behavioral Science Researcher

The idea for this book originated during a conversation in December 2006 with C. Deborah Laughton, Publisher, Methodology and Statistics, at The Guilford Press, about the challenges of teaching research seminars or other courses in which students conduct a thesis project. These students could be senior undergraduates in advanced programs, such as honors or specialization, or first-year graduate students.

• ### Using EU Funds in PPPs - explaining the how and starting the discussion on the future

We do not find economically or statistically significant differences in fees (expenses, loads, or a measure of the total ownership cost of mutual fund shares) between SRI and similar conventional funds. Therefore, either there are no significant differences in the way fees are set for SRI and conventional funds, or the effects of those differences cancel out on average. Consistent with the results for before-fee performance and fees, we find that SRI funds obtain a higher after-fee risk-adjusted performance in terms of four-factor alpha than similar conventional funds. ...

• ### Applied statistics and probabilty for engineers

Applied statistics and probabilty for engineers_This is an introductory textbook for a first course in applied statistics and probability for undergraduate students in engineering and the physical or chemical sciences. These individuals play a significant role in designing and developing new products and manufacturing systems and processes, and they also improve existing systems. Statistical methods are an important tool in these activities because they provide the engineer with both descriptive and analytical methods for dealing with the variability in observed data.

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "Three Generative, Lexicalised Models for Statistical Parsing"

In this paper we first propose a new statistical parsing model, which is a generative model of lexicalised context-free grammar. We then extend the model to include a probabilistic treatment of both subcategorisation and wh-movement. Results on Wall Street Journal text show that the parser performs at 88.1/87.5% constituent precision/recall, an average improvement of 2.3% over (Collins 96). is derived from the analysis given in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (Gazdar et al. 95).

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "Statistics of Operationally Defined Homonyms of Elementary Words"

This computerized study of the homonyms of elementary words (roughly equivalent to monosyllabic words) has allowed the compilation of exhaustive lists of homonym sets, using phonetic transcriptions from five different dictionaries. Of the 5,757 elementary words, 2,966 were involved in at least one homonym set, indicating that homonyms will present a significant problem in.

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "Improving Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual Collocation"

This paper proposes to use monolingual collocations to improve Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). We make use of the collocation probabilities, which are estimated from monolingual corpora, in two aspects, namely improving word alignment for various kinds of SMT systems and improving phrase table for phrase-based SMT. The experimental results show that our method improves the performance of both word alignment and translation quality significantly.

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "Automatic Story Segmentation using a Bayesian Decision Framework for Statistical Models of Lexical Chain Features"

This paper presents a Bayesian decision framework that performs automatic story segmentation based on statistical modeling of one or more lexical chain features. Automatic story segmentation aims to locate the instances in time where a story ends and another begins. A lexical chain is formed by linking coherent lexical items chronologically. A story boundary is often associated with a significant number of lexical chains ending before it, starting after it, as well as a low count of chains continuing through it.

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "Generative Models for Statistical Parsing with Combinatory Categorial Grammar"

This paper compares a number of generative probability models for a widecoverage Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) parser. These models are trained and tested on a corpus obtained by translating the Penn Treebank trees into CCG normal-form derivations. According to an evaluation of unlabeled word-word dependencies, our best model achieves a performance of 89.9%, comparable to the ﬁgures given by Collins (1999) for a linguistically less expressive grammar. In contrast to Gildea (2001), we ﬁnd a significant improvement from modeling wordword dependencies. ...

• ### Báo cáo khoa học: "A Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Statistical Machine Translation"

We introduce a polynomial-time algorithm for statistical machine translation. This algorithm can be used in place of the expensive, slow best-first search strategies in current statistical translation architectures. The approach employs the stochastic bracketing transduction grammar (SBTG) model we recently introduced to replace earlier word alignment channel models, while retaining a bigram language model. The new algorithm in our experience yields major speed improvement with no significant loss of accuracy. ...

• ### Statistics for Microarrays

This is an unusual statistics book in several respects. It attempts to explain the statistical methodology needed to answer several biological questions. This is in contrast to books that try to teach statistical techniques and hope that the reader can find the appropriate contexts in which to use them. Many an applied scientist has seen this hope turn into despair, not really due to a fault of his own.

• ### WORK AMONG THE ELDERLY

In general, the health status at old age has an important individual and social relevance. The vulnerability is increasing by physiological and morphological changes in the organism and central nervous system during the ageing process. The indicators of physiological health are based on prevalence of disabilities and causes of death. In Germany the main causes of death are circulatory diseases, neoplasms, diseases of respiratory system and diseases of digestive system (Statistisches Bundesamt 2007a; Nolte, Shkolinikov & McKee 2000).

• ### Pesticides in the Atmosphere Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors

Most people are aware of and concerned with the health effects of pesticide residues in the water they drink and the food they eat, but many are surprised to learn that pesticides are commonly found in air and rain. Scientific studies of pesticides in various atmospheric matrices (air, rain, snow, aerosols, and fog) have been ongoing for 40 years. When taken together, these studies, many of which are small and focused, provide a significant contribution to answering the questions when, where, how, and why pesticides are in the atmosphere.

• ### EY Islamic funds & investment report 2008

This difference is substantial and highly statistically significant in all specifications. These results are consistent with two different hypotheses. First, unobservable factors at the management company level could be associated with both the decision to specialize in SRI funds and higher fees and performance. In this case, socially responsible investing itself would not have any effect on performance or fees.

• ### Worldwide Investment Fund Assets and Flows Trends in the Fourth Quarter 2011

Effective cost management can be accessed from administrative expense ratio. Negative relationship between administrative expense ratio and mutual growth are confirmed as expected. This implies AMCs with higher effective cost management have higher growth. Positive relationship between funds growth and management fees is as expected but not statistically significant. Negative relationship between size of the AMCs and mutual fund growth is found. Effect from size is different from what the model expects.

• ### ADVANCES IN IMAGE SEGMENTATION

The field of digital image segmentation is continually evolving. Most recently, the advanced segmentation methods such as Template Matching, Spatial and Temporal ARMA Processes, Mean Shift Iterative Algorithm, Constrained Compound Markov Random Field (CCMRF) model and Statistical Pattern Recognition (SPR) methods form the core of a modernization effort that resulted in the current text. This new edition of "Advanced Image Segmentation" is but a reflection of the significant progress that has been made in the field of image segmentation in just the past few years.

• ### Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology: Methods and Applications

Scale is a unifying concept that cuts across all natural and social sciences. At the same time, scaling is a common challenge in both basic and applied research. Accordingly, scale and scaling have become two of the most widely used buzzwords in ecology today. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen books and many more journal papers have been published on the problems of scale and scaling in ecology and geophysical sciences. These publications, as reviewed in the chapters of this book, have contributed significantly to our current understanding of scale issues.

• ### Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB): ACCOUNTING FOR PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT

Restating and control firms appear very similar in the measurable degree of influence that the CEO exerts on the board. Panel D of Table 5 shows that the CEO chairs the board in about 64 percent (62 percent) of the restating (control) firms. The CEO’s median tenure on the board is 5 (7) years in restating (control) firms. The CEO belongs to the founding family in 26 percent (20 percent) of the firms in the two samples. The CEO appears to pick board members in 80 percent (82 percent) of the firms in the two groups. None of these differences are statistically significant....