My interest in the relationship between tort law and the implementation of
international human rights standards, particularly the European Convention on
Human Rights, was prompted by a series of cases decided in the last decade that
challenged the English courts to make public authorities accountable for their
actions. Perhaps the most notable was the House of Lords’ decision in X v.
The application of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) can assist in improving and optimising the diagnosis, prognosis, control, treatment and ultimately the welfare of animals. It can also provide the user with a methodology for appropriate, patient orientated life-long, self-directed, learning. To practise evidence-based veterinary medicine we require a range of skills that we may not have.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights proclaim that everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including freedom to manifest their religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance. Even today, in our democratic societies too, this fundamental right is still sometimes restricted and meets with hostility and intolerance.
Ronald Dworkin argues that Americans have been systematically misled about what their Constitution is, and how judges decide what it means. The Constitution, he observes, grants individual rights in extremely abstract terms. The First Amendment prohibits the passing of laws that “abridge the freedom of speech”; the Fifth Amendment insists on “due process of law”; and the Fourteenth Amendment demands “equal protection of the laws” for all persons.
Consideration of the impacts on marine archaeologyshould include both designated and undesignatedremains.A small number of shipwrecks in territorialwaters are designated under the Protection of WrecksAct 1973,or protected under the Protection of MilitaryRemains Act 1986,but the vast majority of wrecks,including nationally important sites,are undesignated.Submerged prehistoric land surfaces and theirassociated archaeological remains,which may be ofconsiderable importance,are currently offered no form of statutory protection.
Notification of absence of employee having delegated approval authorization will be
released by Head of Department to Director HR, Director IT, Director Finance, and
Internal Audit Services. In addition, copy to Director IBA for absence of Level 3
For 250 years, veterinary medicine and its scientific underpinning, veterinary
science, have struggled to gain the confidence and respect of clients, fellow
health scientists and practitioners, and the general public. And it has been
accomplished by means of the scientific method and strict objectivity. To
embrace unproven or even discredited “complementary and alternative” techniques
surely is regressive both for patients and for veterinarians.
Disagreements involving environmental priorities and strategic approaches, and balancing the
relative roles of compliance assistance with enforcement, contribute to the complexity and
friction that come with enforcing national pollution control laws. Other contributing factors
include the increasing number of statutory and related regulatory pollution control requirements
(some with conflicting mandates) and the adequacy of the resources available for their
Damm et al. Health Economics Review 2011, 1:16 http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/16
Promoting vaccinations - an analysis of measures taken by German statutory health insurers
Kathrin Damm*, Jana M Schubert and J-Matthias von der Schulenburg
Introduction: Prophylactic vaccinations play a significant role in health care. As a relatively cost-effective preventive measure they can help to avert transmissible diseases and thus protect not only the vaccinated individuals themselves but also those who have not been vaccinated.
The broader objective of the FSA’s regulatory approach is to balance the
competing interests of shareholder wealth maximization and the interests of other
The FSA’s balancing exercise relies less on the strict application of
statutory codes and regulatory standards, and more on the design of flexible, internal
compliance programmes that fit the particular risk-level and nature of the bank’s
Congress has enacted laws requiring individuals and facilities to take measures to protect
environmental quality and public health by limiting potentially harmful emissions and discharges,
and remediating damage. Enforcement of federal pollution control laws in the United States
occurs within a highly diverse, complex, and dynamic statutory framework and organizational
setting. Multiple statutes address a number of environmental pollution issues, such as those
associated with air emissions, water discharges, hazardous wastes, and toxic substances in
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 applies with regard to statutory nuisance
(section 80). However, mobile operators will rarely stay at a single location long
enough to satisfy the criteria for statutory nuisance. If the operation is at defined
premises, eg a supermarket car park or at a residential or commercial address,
action could be taken against the owner or occupier of the land. There are also
requirements under this legislation for the correct disposal of waste.
1.1 Intellectual property, very broadly, means the legal rights which result from intellectual
activity in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. Countries have laws to protect
intellectual property for two main reasons. One is to give statutory expression to the moral and
economic rights of creators in their creations and the rights of the public in access to those
Although the policies and practices of the Board of Registration in Medicine are established by the
Board, and its autonomy was mandated by the legislature, historically the agency had come under
the umbrella of the state’s Office of Consumer Affairs and Business Regulation for administrative
purposes. In 2003 a statutory change placed the agency’s administrative residence under the
umbrella of the Department of Public Health, but with the same level of autonomy as it had always
The Enforcement Division is responsible for the investigation of all consumer complaints and
statutory reports referred from the Data Repository Committee. The Consumer Protection Unit of
the Enforcement Division coordinates the initial review of all complaints as part of its “triage’’
process. Complaints with allegations of substandard care are reviewed by experienced clinical
nurses from the division’s Clinical Care Unit and then sent to outside expert reviewers.