Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based stochastic optimization technique influenced by the social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling.PSO shares many similarities with evolutionary computation techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). The system is initialized with a population of random solutions and searches for optima by updating generations.
This Report addresses in considerable detail the consequences of
hot particles on and near the skin, in the eye, ear, respiratory system,
and gastrointestinal tract. Limits for exposures from hot particles are
recommended. If exposures are maintained below the recommended
limits, few, if any, deterministic biological effects are expected to be
observed, and those effects would be transient in nature. If effects
from a hot-particle exposure are observed, the result is an easily
treated medical condition involving an extraordinarily small stochastic
This report has been prepared as a result of a request to the
National Council on Radiation Protedion and Measurements (NCRP)
from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In recent years,
nuclear utilities have identified the potential for a limited number
of employees to come in contact with microscopic particles that are
radioactive. These particles have been given the generic name, independent
of their source and particular chemical and radioactive content,
of "hot particles."
This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on
Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun-
Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective
of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of
magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between
locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts,
the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.