This paper presents the experiences gained from ongoing research collaboration between the School of Computer Engineering at Nanyang Technological University and the Southampton e-Science centre at the University of Southampton using a serviceoriented approach for complex engineering design optimization. The service-oriented approach enables programmatic collaboration to be realized while maintaining the autonomy of individual codes at the different institutes and organizations. In the current work, a Genetic algorithm optimization logic implemented as a Grid...
This thesis describes the current state of development of the Flexible Low-cost Automated Scaled Highway (FLASH) laboratory at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI). The FLASH lab and the scale model cars contained therein provide a testbed for the small scale development stage of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In addition, the FLASH lab serves as a
high heats by mass removal. Their most common use is as an external heat shield to protect supersonic aerospace vehicles from an excessive buildup of heat caused by air friction at the surface. The ablative material must have a low thermal conductivity in order that the heat may remain concentrated in the thin surface layer. As the surface of the ablator melts or sublimes, it is wiped away by the frictional forces that simultaneously heat newly exposed surfaces. The heat is carried off with the material removed. The less material that is lost, the more efficient is the ablative material....
Project Socrates determined that to rebuild US competitiveness, decision making throughout the US had to readopt technology-based planning. Project Socrates also determined that countries like China and India had continued executing technology-based (while the US took its detour into economic-based) planning, and as a result had considerable advanced the process and were using it to build themselves into superpowers. To rebuild US competitiveness the US decision-makers needed adopt a form of technology-based planning that was far more advanced than that used by China and India....
.MEMS Mechanical Sensors
.For a listing of recent titles in the Artech House Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Series, turn to the back of this book.
.MEMS Mechanical Sensors
Stephen Beeby Graham Ensell Michael Kraft Neil White
Artech House, Inc. Boston • London www.artechhouse.com
.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Beeby, Stephen. MEMS mechanical sensors.— (Artech House MEMS library) 1.
Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.
Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer. Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns.
Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design engineering.
New specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches - for example Earth Systems Engineering and Management involves a wide range of subject areas including anthropology, engineering, environmental science, ethics and philosophy. A new or emerging area of application will commonly be defined temporarily as a permutation or subset of existing disciplines; there is often gray area as to when a given sub-field becomes large and/or prominent enough to warrant classification as a new "branch.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area" and "a capability given by the practical application of knowledge". Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here". The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.