Our setup allows us to disentan-
gle the implications of these two alternative pricing mechanisms that are standard in the
open-economy macro literature. In our model, di®erent assumptions regarding the pricing
decisions of ¯rms are virtually inconsequential for the properties of aggregate variables, other
than the terms of trade. In particular, the real exchange rate and the international relative
price of ¯nal tradable goods behave similarly across the two price setting regimes.
Addressing the options for domestic sustainable agriculture policies in developing countries, it is
generally observed that the world’s agriculture trade system is progressively moving towards an
open-market system, a process which is desirable from both a trade as well as a sustainable
development point of view.
It has been widely acknowledged that Bulgaria’s macroeconomic performance has
changed dramatically since 1997. Macroeconomic and financial stability have been restored
and economic activity started to recover; inflation was brought down to single-digit numbers,
real incomes have been rising and the chronic fiscal gap has been closed. A CBA is an
extremely rigid macroeconomic regime which hardens macro-budget constraints as it
eliminates direct central bank credits to finance the budget deficit.
Creep phenomena have so far been investigated only in terms of old-
style technology. For a number of decades, the usual way of tackling
similar problems was to apply simple and exact tests (e.g. tensile tests)
to the very complex and impure materials used in industry and then
to subject the results of these tests to a subtle mathematical analysis.
As to the prospects of this way of proceeding, we need only to realize
that a piece of iron is far more complicated a structure than, for
example, a watch.
The policy implications of these trade-offs are intimately related to those that surround
the debate on the treatment of systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) viewed
as too-important-to-fail (TITF). The growing complexity and interconnectedness of financial
institutions, coupled with the lack of effective cross-border resolution regimes, have
undermined market discipline, contributed to excessive risk taking, and compromised the
ability of home and host authorities to cope with the failure of TITF institutions.
Environmental stress deleteriously affects every aspect of an ectotherm’s
biological function. Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature
variation has thus led to the evolution of protective biochemical and phy-siological mechanisms. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying
the positive impact of fluctuating thermal regimes (FTRs) on the fitness
and survival of cold-exposed insects have not been studied.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) sponsored district level Rapid
Household Surveys, which have facilitated the availability of crucial and basic RCH indicators
for all the 504 districts as per the 1991 Census of India. The surveys were conducted all over
India during 1998-99 to elicit basic district level RCH indicators for 504 districts as of 1991
These related changes have locked the global economy and global ecology together in new
ways. We have in the past been concerned about the impacts of economic growth upon the
environment. We are now forced to concern ourselves with the impacts of ecological stress -
degradation of soils, water regimes, atmosphere, and forests upon our economic prospects.
We have in the more recent past been forced to face up to a sharp increase in economic
interdependence among nations. We are now forced to accustom ourselves to an accelerating
ecological interdependence among nations.
The period from 2006 to 2012 saw a
number of major events, a very significant
one being the global meltdown in the
banking and financial services industry
(BFSI), which had knock-on effects on
almost all business sectors.
Considering that we now live in a connected
world, India faced its own share of
consequences although companies in the
BFSI segment remained relatively unaffected
by the turmoil seen in the Western world.
It seemed as though the tighter regulatory
regime had paid a dividend in an imploding
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