Structural adjustment

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  • Extensive evidence confirms that creating the conditions for a deep and efficient financial system can contribute robustly to sustained economic growth and lower poverty (e.g., see Beck, Levine, and Loayza 2000, Honohan 2004a, and World Bank 2001a). Moreover, in all levels of development, continued efficient and effective provision of financial services requires that financial policies and financial system structures be adjusted as needed in response to financial innovations and shifts in the broader macroeconomic and institu- tional environment....

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  • fast pace. As part of the structural adjustment programmes of the late 1980s and early 1990s Bangladesh undertook a number of initiatives towards trade liberalisation and trade promotion to stimulate exports and encourage investment in export-oriented activities. The major objective of these reforms was removal of anti-export bias, introduction of incentives for exports and facilitation of participation in global labour market.

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  • Racking is constructed from steel components including upright frames, beams and decking. Special beam to column (upright) connections and bracing systems are utilised, in order to achieve a three dimensional steel ‘sway’ or ‘braced’ structure with “aisles” to enable order pickers, industrial trucks or stacker cranes to reach the storage positions. Although components are standardised they are only standard to each manufacturer. These components differ from traditional column and beam structures in the following regard.

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  • About a year ago I was asked by a firm of insurance loss adjusters to investigate the possibility of reducing the anticipated overrrun caused by an explosion at a power stayion. Based on previous experienxe of similar problems.

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  • In recent years, enormous strides have been made in the art and science of credit risk measurement and management. Much of the energy in this area has resulted from dissatisfaction with traditional approaches to credit risk measurement and with the current Bank for International Settlements (BIS) regulatory model.

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  • Despite the gradual shift towards a market economy that commenced in 1986, and in spite of the emphasis on state owned enterprise (SOE) reform and privatization in the structural adjustment programs formulated since the mid-1990s, the state sector continues to play a leading role in the Vietnamese economy. The dominant position of the state sector is confirmed in official statistics and a variety of studies on the Vietnamese economy.

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  • Ethan Marcotte wrote an introductory article about the approach, “Responsive Web Design,” for A List Apart. It stems from the notion of responsive architectural design, whereby a room or space automatically adjusts to the number and flow of people within it: “Recently, an emergent discipline called “responsive architecture” has begun asking how physical spaces can respond to the presence of people passing through them.

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  • The high-technology answer seemed to lie in the creation of new manufacturing sectors, which—by virtue of high growth and rising productivity—might restore the promise of high-wage, stable employment. Such sectors were emerging in Silicon Valley and other centers that increasingly looked to a combination of electronics and information as their stock in trade. But also taking place were profound changes in the nature of manufactur- ing; these changes would be fatal to the cities’ hopes for new sectors.

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  • The addition to gasoline of a lead-containing compound called tetraethyllead was an attempt to enhance engine performance. The use of this compound was phased out when it was found to destroy the effectiveness of the catalytic converter (described below) which is used to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and NOx. Tetraethyllead is just one member of a group of compounds, called octane boosters, which can be added to gasoline to increase its octane number. Other compounds that have been used as octane enhancers over the years include methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH).

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  • The authorities have also led some policy initiatives to encourage investors to adopt new references moving away from short-term indexation. For example, the main securities exchange (BM&F Bovespa) introduced reference rates for 3 and 6 months aiming at extending the reference rate for investors. In February 2012, the National Treasury undertook securities exchange operations with Extramercado Funds5 in order to adjust their portfolio. The investment policy of these funds has been adjusted such that they must be referenced to one of the Anbima Market Indices (IMA).

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  • Korea’s experience also illustrates how good crisis management can accelerate structural adjustment. The Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s led to significant down-sizing among large firms in Korea. This process was characterized by mass lay-offs of highly-skilled personnel, and large reductions in corporate R&D spending. The response of the Korean government, in addition to boosting education expenditure, was to increase its R&D budget, to offset the decline in corporate R&D spending.

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  • Looking at a recent Cairns Group proposal on domestic support it can be seen that they want to strengthen the Green Box provision dealing with direct payments (including structural adjustment, environment and regional assistance) while capping overall spending on direct payments under the Green Box. As well, they hope to subject certain support sub-categories in the Box to reduction commitments. The Cairns Group paper further proposes to strengthen transparency, notification and review mechanisms to ensure programs meet the criteria set out in the Green Box.

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  • A great gulf exists between what is known and what should be known about women in midlife and older, in order to understand their lives. In Jamaica, women over fifty years old are taken for granted, although demographically and socially they have been, and continue to be, a force to be reckoned with in the society. They are such a force because of their positive contributions to family, community and the economy.

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  • Clearly, a straightforward implication of wages being determined by sectoral conditions would be that industry-level contracts offer little scope for adjustments of individual wages to firm-specific demand shocks, even if the latter are of permanent nature. However, as demonstrated in Section 2.2, industry-level contracts do not necessarily provide an obstacle to the adjustment of wages to local conditions, as recent decentralisation tendencies in Germany have introduced the option of making such wage adjustments.

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  • We insure your car for its agreed value. Your car’s agreed value is set by Just Car at the commencement of your policy and it’s almost always adjusted at the beginning of each subsequent period of cover. It is shown on the most recent of your insurance schedule and renewal notice and it does not change during the period of cover. The agreed value includes GST and is the most we will pay for your car , less any excess(es) and any other deductions this policy explains, for accidental loss or damage covered by this policy occurring during the period...

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  • The total rebuilding of Pier A in 1995 and the construction of a link to Terminal 1 in 1998 was designed by the architect firm Holm & Grut A/S. The most characteristic feature of the pier is its modern version of fan vaulting supporting the aluminium wing structures that make up the roof. These curved roofs and the glass facades form reflecting surfaces that create the space and light that is the hallmark of Nordic architecture. Holm & Grut wanted to create a building that would give arriving passengers an immediate experience of Scandinavian design.

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  • Early relational systems used indices as table replicas that allowed vertical partitioning, allowed associative search, and allowed con- venient data ordering. Database optimizers and executors use semi-join on these structures to run common queries on covering indices. These query strategies give huge speedups. These early ideas evolved to materialized views (often maintained by triggers) that went far beyond simple covering indices and provided fast access to star and snowflake schema. In...

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  • The effect is to leave the North with positive rates of genuine savings, and many resource-rich Southern countries with negative or near-zero rates. This distracts attention from analysis of the ‘environmental space’ occupied by economies with strong, traditionally-defined economic growth — and excessive consumption of the world’s resources. 23 Many people argue that reducing Northern consumption levels is central to curbing excessive resource depletion and pollution and reducing global inequalities in energy use and other forms of consumption.

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  • To support continued progress toward the most critical goals and outcomes, the FY 2013 request reprioritizes and adjusts funding levels. Where possible, the Agency is leveraging its resources by expanding or building new partnerships with other federal agencies.

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  • The K103N substitution is a frequently observed HIV-1 RT mutation in patients who do not respond to combinationtherapy. The drugs Efavirenz, MSC194 and PNU142721 belong to the recent generation of NNRTIs characterized by an improved resistance profile to the most common single point mutations within HIV-1 RT, including the K103N mutation. In the present study we present structural observations from Efavirenz in complex with wild-type protein and the K103N mutant and PNU142721 and MSC194 in complex with the K103N mutant.

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