Structural barriers

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  • Exciting new observational and theoretical advances lead today's solar physicists to challenge many of the predictions of even recent models. This volume summarizes the major questions at the forefront of solar physics theory and observations, and proposes priority recommendations to explore these questions.

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  • This Report was developed under the auspices of Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the committee that is concerned with operational radiation safety. The Report addresses the structural shielding design for medical x-ray imaging facilities and supersedes the parts that address such facilities in NCRP Report No. 49, Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X Rays and Gamma Rays of Energies Up to 10 MeV, which was issued in September 1976.

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  • Interactions between astrocytes and blood vessels are essential for the for-mation and maintenance of the blood–neural barrier (BNB). Astrocyte-derived A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) influences BNB formation, but the mechanism of regulation of BNB functions by AKAP12 is not fully understood.

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  • The prion-forming domain comprising residues 218–289 of the fungal prion HET-s forms infectious amyloid fibrils at physiological pH. Because a high-resolution molecular model for the structure of these fibrils exists, it constitutes an attractive system with which to study the mechanism of amy-loid assembly.

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  • Crystal growth is an important process, which forms the basis for a wide variety of natural phenomena and engineering developments. This book provides a unique opportunity for a reader to gain knowledge about various aspects of crystal growth from advanced inorganic materials to inorganic/organic composites, it unravels some problems of molecular crystallizations and shows advances in growth of pharmaceutical crystals, it tells about biomineralization of mollusks and cryoprotection of living cells, it gives a chance to learn about statistics of chiral asymmetry in crystal structure....

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  • Barriers to low-carbon investment may be financial, structural or technical. Financial barriers include fossil fuel subsidies, and the unpriced carbon externality. These discourage local businesses, project developers, vendors, technology providers from offering low carbon solutions to the market, and hamper institutional and market financing mechanisms enabling such businesses to grow.

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  • Data preparation includes the processes of cleansing, summarizing, and transforming detail and operational data into structures such as data warehouses and data marts that are suitable for BI reporting, data mining, scoring, and statistical processing. Many DBMSs provide some support for data preparation, such as filtering, aggregation, denormalization, and so on. However, SAS uniquely supports operations such as sampling, variable binning, imputation, and variable selection, which are typically not as robust in the DBMS functionality.

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  • An important barrier to quick process changes is the industry’s slow capital-turnover rate. A survey in 1997/8 revealed that the median age of paper ma- chines in Europe was 23 years (Berkhout, 2005). Recent research undertaken in the USA suggests a potential negative correlation between environmental innovation and sunk costs. The research suggests that no matter what the regulator does, because there will be much lobbying and negotiations undertaken as a part of the permitting process, regula- tors tend to favour existing actors over potential new entrants.

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  • Synthesis has both an age-structured and a size/age-structured version. Both are capable of simultaneously examining data from several fisheries and several surveys, each with its own pattern of selectivity. Synthesis calculates selectivity with modified logistic functions. Parameters of these functions can take on time-specific values, thus allowing flexibility to track changes in fishery selectivity. The goodness of fit is quantified in terms of a log-likelihood function composed of independent terms for each kind of observation from each type of fishery or survey.

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  • Chromatin is by its very nature a repressive environment which restricts the recruitment of transcription factors and acts as a barrier to polymerases. Therefore the complex process of gene activation must operate at two levels. In the first instance, localized chromatin decondensation and nucleosome displacement is required to make DNA accessible.

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  • RNA interference (RNAi) has been regarded as a revolutionary tool for manipulating target biological processes as well as an emerging and prom-ising therapeutic strategy. In contrast to the tangible and obvious effective-ness of RNAiin vitro, silencing target gene expression in vivo using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been a very challenging task due to multiscale barriers

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  • The recent convergence of genetic and biochemical evidence on the activit-ies of lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes has implicated the production of hep-oxilin derivatives (fatty acid epoxyalcohols) in the pathways leading to formation of the water-impermeable barrier of the outer epidermis.

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  • The cyanobacterial plasma membrane is an essential cell barrier with func-tions such as the control of taxis, nutrient uptake and secretion. These functions are carried out by integral membrane proteins, which are difficult to identify using standard proteomic methods.

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  • The conformational dynamics of NADH oxidase from Thermus thermophiluswas modulated by the Hofmeister series of anions (H2PO4 – ,SO4 2– ,CH3COO – ,Cl – ,Br – ,I – , ClO4 – ,SCN – ) in the concentration range 0–3M. Both cha-otropic and kosmotropic anions,at high concentration, inhibit the enzyme by different mechanisms. Chaotropic anions increase the apparent Michaelis constant and decre-ase the activation barrier of the reaction. Kosmotropic ani-ons have the opposite effect.

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  • The lipids found in biological systems are either hydrophobic (containing only nonpolar groups) or amphipathic (possessing both polar and nonpolar groups). The hydrophobic nature of lipid molecules allows membranes to act as effective barriers to more polar molecules. In this chapter, we discuss the chemical and physical properties of the various classes of lipid molecules. The following chapter considers membranes, whose properties depend intimately on their lipid constituents.

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  • The angiogenic process in the central nervous system (CNS) is basically regulated by typical angiogenic signaling systems such as vascular endothe-lial growth factor (VEGF)–VEGF receptors and angiopoietin–Tie recep-tors. In addition to regular endothelial–pericyte interaction, the CNS vasculature has a unique system of cell to cell communication between endothelial cells and astrocytes which is known as the blood–brain barrier.

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  • Arthropod cuticles play an important role as the first barrier against inva-ding pathogens. We extensively determined the sequences of horseshoe crab cuticular proteins. Proteins extracted from a part of the ventral side of the cuticle were purified by chitin-affinity chromatography, and separated by two-dimensional SDS⁄PAGE. Proteins appearing on the gel were designa-ted high molecular mass chitin-binding proteins, and these proteins were then grouped into classes based on their approximate isoelectric points and predominant amino acid compositions. ...

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  • Chapter 5 - Managerial decision making . The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Nature of managerial decision making, managers as decision makers, effective decision making, barriers to effective decision making, group decision making, creativity in decision making.

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  • This book brings together many authoritative scientific and technological papers which demonstrate the way in which systematic studies can help decision-makers understand the linkages between land- and water-use practices and their impacts on coral reef processes and structure.

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  • A further barrier to pension funds‟ investment in green projects is their lack of knowledge and experience not only with „green‟ projects, but with infrastructure investments in general (which green projects are often a subsector of) and the financing vehicles involved (such as private equity funds or structured products).

    pdf61p quaivatdo 19-11-2012 22 5   Download

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