The use of fibre optic sensors in structural health monitoring has rapidly accelerated in recent years. By embedding fibre optic sensors in structures (e.g. buildings, bridges and pipelines) it is possible to obtain real time data on structural changes such as stress or strain. Engineers use monitoring data to detect deviations from a structure’s original design performance in order to optimise the operation, repair and maintenance of a structure over time.
Today, the ultrasonic signal is being used for predicting material behavior,
characterizing (detecting internal anomalies in) a variety of engineering structures,
as well as for inspecting human body parts like tumors, bones, and unborn fetuses.
Because of the ever-increasing popularity of the ultrasonic techniques in a wide
range of applications, this technology has received a lot of attention from the
research community. This book presents some new developments in ultrasonic
research for material and structure inspection. Application areas cover both
engineering and biological materials....
Composites are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which
remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Basically, they can be
categorized into two major types, i.e., structural composites with outstanding
mechanical properties and functional composites with various outstanding physical,
chemical or electrochemical properties. They have been widely used in a wide variety
of products, e.g.
This book presents a comprehensive account of recent advances and researches in fiber optic sensor technology. It consists of 21 chapters encompassing the recent progress in the subject, basic principles of various sensor types, their applications in structural health monitoring and the measurement of various physical, chemical and biological parameters.
Energy harvesting from ambient waste energy for the purpose of running low-powered electronics
has emerged during the last decade as an enabling technology for wireless applications.
The goal of this technology is to provide remote sources of electric power and/or to recharge
storage devices, such as batteries and capacitors. The concept has ecological ramifications in
reducing the chemical waste produced by replacing batteries and potential monetary gains by
reducing maintenance costs.
More recently, a QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relantionship) investigation was
carried out on a series of nostoclide analogues presenting the general structure (43) to
correlate molecular descriptions with their in vitro biological activity (the ability to interfere
with ligh-driven reduction of ferrycianide by isolated spinach chloroplasts thylakoid
membranes). The results of this investigation suggested that the degree of inhibition
efficiency of this class of compounds is intimately associated with their polarity (Teixeira et
Wireless sensor networks promise an unprecedented fine-grained interface
between the virtual and physical worlds. They are one of the most rapidly developing
new information technologies, with applications in a wide range of fields
including industrial process control, security and surveillance, environmental
sensing, and structural health monitoring. This book is motivated by the urgent
need to provide a comprehensive and organized survey of the field.
The key weekly sessions are outlined in the program below. There is only 3
sessions that need to be completed as part of the structured program each week.
However, for those runners wanting to break 40 or 50 minutes, it is important to
supplement these 3 key sessions with some lower intensity recovery runs. These
runs can be completed 1-3 times weekly and should consist of 25-40 minutes of
easy running. They should not be stressful at all, and in most cases you should
finish the run feeling better than you did at the beginning.
Alignment and harmonization of sexual
and reproductive health
The 6 years since the Paris Declaration on Aid
Effectiveness (4) have marked a significant change
in awareness of the importance of coordination of
resources for health and development – though
reviews of progress at the Accra Agenda for Action
in 2008 (4) suggested that there was a need for a
greater shift towards alignment with government
policies and national systems (such as monitoring
and procurement) than had already occurred.
Accordingly, for the purpose of impact assessment, it was decided not to use response functions from
daily mortality time-series studies to estimate the excess annual mortality but the change in the
long-term mortality rates associated with ambient air pollution.
Contrary to the exposure function which is assumed to be the same for all countries, the health
outcome frequency (frequency with which a health outcome appears in the population for a defined
time span) may differ across countries. These differences may result from a different age structure or
from other factors (i.e.
The importance of SRH to the attainment of international development goals
has not been adequately translated into action frameworks and monitoring
mechanisms at international, regional and national levels. Advances have been
hindered by the complexity of the concept. Different components of SRH fall
within the province of different sectoral ministries, challenging coordinated
national responses. Many national planners learned development economics
before the recent analytical advances on the effect of age structures on poverty
Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are provider-centric organized systems of care
promoted in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). ACOs increase quality,
reduce hospital readmissions, and save money. ACOs are required to create legal entities that
include leadership, a management structure, infrastructure, and the means to distribute monies
among partners. ACO agreements must be three years or longer.