Structural issues

Xem 1-20 trên 231 kết quả Structural issues
  • BS 449 was first issued in 1932 and was revised in December 1935, July 1937, July 1948 and May 1959. It was reset and reprinted in February 1965 incorporating amendments Nos. 1 to 5 and reprinted in October 1967 incorporating amendments Nos. 6 and 7. When a programme of Codes of Practice for Buildings was drawn up in 1942 under the aegis of the Ministry of Works, a Code of Practice for the structural use of steel in buildings was included in a series for all types of building construction: this was later (1948) issued as CP 113....

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  • This paper addresses issues in financial sector regulation from two perspectives. First, it reports on the state of implementation of financial regulatory standards across banking, insurance, and securities sectors in a select group of Fund member countries. Second, it raises issues relating to the design of these three sector standards, arising from the implementation experience and the evolving structure of financial systems. In this regard, the paper identifies a few emerging regulatory risks and some cross-sectoral issues that may warrant further guidance by standard setters....

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  • In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are three primary sources of finance for companies: ● a cash surplus from operating activities ● new equity funding ● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.

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  • Stocks are not the most important sources of external financing for businesses (figure 1) == Why? Issuing marketable debt and equity securities is not the primary way in which businesses finance their operations (figure 1) == Why? Indirect finance is many times more important than direct finance ((figure 1) == Why? Financial intermediaries are the most important source of external funds (figure 1) == Why?

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  • The ability to conduct research independently, accurately, and effectively plays a fundamental role in college and the workplace. Research skills are critical tools for acquiring, extending, and sharing knowledge in academic and workplace settings, and students must be able to determine when and how to conduct and document research.

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  • Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance provides an interdisciplinary analysis of the major developments and central questions in debates over international constitutionalism at the United Nations, European Union, World Trade Organization, and other sites of global gover- nance. The essays in this volume explore controversial empirical and normative questions, doctrinal and structural issues, and questions of institutional design and positive political theory.

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  • The Context-Free backbone of some natural language analyzers produces all possible CF parses as some kind of shared forest, from which a single tree is to be chosen by a disambiguation process that may be based on the finer features of the language. We study the structure of these forests with respect to optimality of sharing, and in relation with the parsing schema used to produce them. In addition to a theoretical and experimental framework for studying these issues, the main results presented are: sophistication in chart parsing schemata (e.g.

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  • In this paper, we address the issue for learning better translation consensus in machine translation (MT) research, and explore the search of translation consensus from similar, rather than the same, source sentences or their spans. Unlike previous work on this topic, we formulate the problem as structured labeling over a much smaller graph, and we propose a novel structured label propagation for the task.

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  • This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests that postural shifts can be predicted as a function of discourse state in monologues, and discourse and conversation state in dialogues.

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  • This description c a n be u s e d t o guide semantic and discourse level structure recovery processes such as interpretation, anaphoric resolution, focus tracking, given/new distinctions, ellipsis resolution, etc. in a manner that is independent of the lexical and conceptual content of the utterance. There are several advantages to factoring out such knowledge.

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  • Although ultimately intended functions include text generation (e.g., 4), present efforts focus on text analysis: developing the capability to take in essentially unconstrained business text and to output grammar and style critiques, on a sentence by sentence basis. Briefly, we use a large on-line dictionary and a bottom-up parser in connection with an Augmented Phrase Structure Grammar (5) to obtain an approximately correct structural description of the surface t e x t (e.g., we posit no transformations or recovery of deleted material to infer underlying "deep" structures). ...

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  • The HPSG grammars we are using, closely resemble the proposals in [Pollard and Sag, 1987]. As far as the coding of the lexical functions is concerned, we have simply interpreted these as relation names. 3 Representation The main aim of the ET-10/?5 project, 'Collocations and the Lexicalisation of Semantic Operations '1, is to evaluate the use of Mel'~uk's analysis of collocations in terms of lexical functions 2, as an interlingun device in a machine translation system.

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  • Special issue paper PAR-3D-BLAST: A parallel tool for searching and aligning protein structures present a parallel tool, parallel 3D-BLAST (PAR-  3D-BLAST), which lists the similar structures to the query protein. Each protein in the result list has a  structural similarity score and an alignment to the query structure. The presented tool is implemented to fit  both the standalone multi-core computers and clusters of multi-core nodes. The achieved speedup is linear  and scalable.

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  • This is a watershed moment in the field of neuroimaging. At least three emerging trends have been slowly reframing the field for the last five years. Each one of these trends intersects with a foundational issue in human brain mapping, affecting the measurement or methodological or theoretical nature of the overall field. First are methodological problems that have arisen concerning nonindependence of samples—in effect the lack of cross-validation procedures applied in the field, especially in social neuroscience (SN).

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  • In this chapter you will learn about the following: Describe the basic structure of the legal system in the United States, relate how laws affect the paramedic’s practice, list situations that a paramedic is legally required to report in most states, describe the four elements involved in a claim of negligence, describe measures paramedics may take to protect themselves from claims of negligence.

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  • The business of professional team sports provides an example of imperfect market structures. A unique characteristic of professional sports is the interdependence of teams. A professional team can be successful only if its competitors are successful. In this chapter, we will address the following question: The economics of professional sports: What is the real score?

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  • The shipping industry is both special and fascinating. It is special, above all, because of its truly global nature, the huge discrete investments needed, the highly cyclical markets at play, and the unique competitive structure, with many determined players. It is fascinating, above all, because fortunes are made—and lost—at a fast pace, with some of the most risk-willing owners also serving as decision makers. This book is the result of at least seven forces that have shaped my interest in shipping corporations and their strategies. The first is purely personal.

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  • Students learn in a number of ways and in a variety of settings. They learn through lectures, in informal study groups, or alone at their desks or in front of a computer terminal. Wherever the location, students learn most efficiently by solving problems, with frequent feedback from an instructor, following a worked-out problem as a model. Worked-out problems have a number of positive aspects. They can capture the essence of a key concept -often better than paragraphs of explanation. They provide methods for acquiring new knowledge and for evaluating its use.

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  • The rapidly increasing global population has dramatically increased the demands for natural resources and has caused significant changes in quantity and quality of natural resources.To achieve sustainable resource management, it is essential to obtain insight- ful guidance from emerging disciplines such as landscape ecology.This text addresses the links between landscape ecology and natural resource management.These links are discussed in the context of various landscape types,a diverse set of resources,and a wide range ofmanagement issues.

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