BS 449 was first issued in 1932 and was revised in December 1935, July 1937,
July 1948 and May 1959. It was reset and reprinted in February 1965
incorporating amendments Nos. 1 to 5 and reprinted in October 1967
incorporating amendments Nos. 6 and 7.
When a programme of Codes of Practice for Buildings was drawn up in 1942
under the aegis of the Ministry of Works, a Code of Practice for the structural use
of steel in buildings was included in a series for all types of building construction:
this was later (1948) issued as CP 113....
This paper addresses issues in financial sector regulation from two perspectives. First, it reports on the state of implementation of financial regulatory standards across banking, insurance, and securities sectors in a select group of Fund member countries. Second, it raises issues relating to the design of these three sector standards, arising from the implementation experience and the evolving structure of financial systems. In this regard, the paper identifies a few emerging regulatory risks and some cross-sectoral issues that may warrant further guidance by standard setters....
In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support
their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are
three primary sources of finance for companies:
● a cash surplus from operating activities
● new equity funding
● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in
the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.
Stocks are not the most important sources of external financing for businesses (figure 1) == Why?
Issuing marketable debt and equity securities is not the primary way in which businesses finance their operations (figure 1) == Why?
Indirect finance is many times more important than direct finance ((figure 1) == Why?
Financial intermediaries are the most important source of external funds (figure 1) == Why?
The ability to conduct research independently, accurately, and effectively plays a fundamental role in college
and the workplace. Research skills are critical tools for acquiring, extending, and sharing knowledge in
academic and workplace settings, and students must be able to determine when and how to conduct and
Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance
provides an interdisciplinary analysis of the major developments and central
questions in debates over international constitutionalism at the United Nations,
European Union, World Trade Organization, and other sites of global gover-
nance. The essays in this volume explore controversial empirical and normative
questions, doctrinal and structural issues, and questions of institutional design
and positive political theory.
The Context-Free backbone of some natural language analyzers produces all possible CF parses as some kind of shared forest, from which a single tree is to be chosen by a disambiguation process that may be based on the finer features of the language. We study the structure of these forests with respect to optimality of sharing, and in relation with the parsing schema used to produce them. In addition to a theoretical and experimental framework for studying these issues, the main results presented are: sophistication in chart parsing schemata (e.g.
Special issue paper PAR-3D-BLAST: A parallel tool for searching and aligning protein structures present a parallel tool, parallel 3D-BLAST (PAR- 3D-BLAST), which lists the similar structures to the query protein. Each protein in the result list has a structural similarity score and an alignment to the query structure. The presented tool is implemented to ﬁt both the standalone multi-core computers and clusters of multi-core nodes. The achieved speedup is linear and scalable.
This chapter explore the valuation underpinnings to the question of capital structure. As we shall see, much controversy surrounds the issue. Despite the unsettled nature of the matter, we hope that this presentation will provide the conceptual backdrop necessary to guide the financial manager in capital structure decisions.
In this paper, we address the issue for learning better translation consensus in machine translation (MT) research, and explore the search of translation consensus from similar, rather than the same, source sentences or their spans. Unlike previous work on this topic, we formulate the problem as structured labeling over a much smaller graph, and we propose a novel structured label propagation for the task.
This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests that postural shifts can be predicted as a function of discourse state in monologues, and discourse and conversation state in dialogues.
This description c a n be u s e d t o guide semantic and discourse level structure recovery processes such as interpretation, anaphoric resolution, focus tracking, given/new distinctions, ellipsis resolution, etc. in a manner that is independent of the lexical and conceptual content of the utterance. There are several advantages to factoring out such knowledge.
Although ultimately intended functions include text generation (e.g., 4), present efforts focus on text analysis: developing the capability to take in essentially unconstrained business text and to output grammar and style critiques, on a sentence by sentence basis. Briefly, we use a large on-line dictionary and a bottom-up parser in connection with an Augmented Phrase Structure Grammar (5) to obtain an approximately correct structural description of the surface t e x t (e.g., we posit no transformations or recovery of deleted material to infer underlying "deep" structures). ...
The HPSG grammars we are using, closely resemble the proposals in [Pollard and Sag, 1987]. As far as the coding of the lexical functions is concerned, we have simply interpreted these as relation names. 3 Representation
The main aim of the ET-10/?5 project, 'Collocations and the Lexicalisation of Semantic Operations '1, is to evaluate the use of Mel'~uk's analysis of collocations in terms of lexical functions 2, as an interlingun device in a machine translation system.
In this chapter you will learn about the following: Describe the basic structure of the legal system in the United States, relate how laws affect the paramedic’s practice, list situations that a paramedic is legally required to report in most states, describe the four elements involved in a claim of negligence, describe measures paramedics may take to protect themselves from claims of negligence.
The business of professional team sports provides an example of imperfect market structures. A unique characteristic of professional sports is the interdependence of teams. A professional team can be successful only if its competitors are successful. In this chapter, we will address the following question: The economics of professional sports: What is the real score?
On the basis of clarifying the general theoretical issues about market risk, methods of identifying, measuring and controlling market risk, the system of market risk management softwares at commercial banks; analyzing and evaluating the status quo of the market risk management in Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade; the thesis proposed solutions to improving market risk management ability at Vietnam Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Industry and Trade in accordance with international practices.
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Describe what Social Security is and its basic tax and benefit structure, detail the history of changes to the program since its inception, explain the economic rationale for having such a system, enumerate the effects of the program on work and savings,...
Chapter 1 - Role and purpose of accounting information systems. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define “accounting information systems”, discuss why AIS is an important area of study for future accountants, compare and contrast AIS with other areas of accounting, explain the structure of most AIS, locate and evaluate information sources on AIS.
Chapter 9 - XBRL, after studying this chapter you will be able to: Define the following terms as they relate to XBRL: extensible, specification, taxonomy, namespace, and instance document; explain the history and structure of XBRL; discuss ways XBRL can benefit organizations; identify software tools for creating XBRL-tagged documents; discuss internal control issues for XBRL.