We present a novel approach to grammatical error correction based on Alternating Structure Optimization. As part of our work, we introduce the NUS Corpus of Learner English (NUCLE), a fully annotated one million words corpus of learner English available for research purposes. We conduct an extensive evaluation for article and preposition errors using various feature sets. Our experiments show that our approach outperforms two baselines trained on non-learner text and learner text, respectively. ...
n view of the growing importance of product liability and the demand for fulfillment of extreme specifications for new products, this book provides the basic tools for establishing model equations in structural mechanics. Additionally, it illustrates the transition and interrelation between structural mechanics and structural optimization. Nowadays, this new direction is extremely important for more efficiency in the design process. The book is divided into four parts covering the fundamentals of elasticity, plane and curved load-bearing structures and structural optimization.
This paper presents a novel application of Alternating Structure Optimization (ASO) to the task of Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) of noun predicates in NomBank. ASO is a recently proposed linear multi-task learning algorithm, which extracts the common structures of multiple tasks to improve accuracy, via the use of auxiliary problems. In this paper, we explore a number of different auxiliary problems, and we are able to signiﬁcantly improve the accuracy of the NomBank SRL task using this approach.
Evolutionary algorithms are a type of general problem solvers that can be applied to many
difﬁcult optimization problems. Because of their generality, these algorithms act similarly
like Swiss Army knife (Michalewicz & Fogel, 2004) that is a handy set of tools that can be
used to address a variety of tasks. In general, a deﬁnite task can be performed better with an
associated special tool.
The interest in robotics has been steadily increasing during the last decades. This
concern has directly impacted the development of the novel theoretical research areas
and products. Some of the fundamental issues that have emerged in serial and
especially parallel robotics manipulators are kinematics & dynamics modeling,
optimization, control algorithms and design strategies. In this new book, we have
highlighted the latest topics about the serial and parallel robotic manipulators in the
sections of kinematics & dynamics, control and optimization.
The tension structures discussed in this book are predominantly roofing forms created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses, and continuous membranes (fabric structures). A unique feature in their design is form-finding an interactive process of defining the shape of a structure under tension. The book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces (minimum energy forms occurring in natural objects, such as soap films) in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures.
Energy is important for the existence and development of humankind and is a key issue
in international politics, the economy, military preparedness, and diplomacy. To reduce
the impact of conventional energy sources on the environment, much attention should be
paid to the development of new energy and renewable energy resources. Solar energy,
which is environment friendly, is renewable and can serve as a sustainable energy source.
Hence, it will certainly become an important part of the future energy structure with the
increasingly drying up of the terrestrial fossil fuel.
In this paper, we investigate an approach for creating a comprehensive textual overview of a subject composed of information drawn from the Internet. We use the high-level structure of human-authored texts to automatically induce a domainspeciﬁc template for the topic structure of a new overview. The algorithmic innovation of our work is a method to learn topicspeciﬁc extractors for content selection jointly for the entire template.
We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignmentbased features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efﬁciently ﬁnds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or nonoverlapping ﬂat coordinations into account. ...
SAP2000 represents the most sophisticated and user-friendly release of the SAP series of computer programs. When initially released in 1996, SAP2000 was the first version of SAP to be completely integrated within Microsoft Windows. It features a powerful graphical user interface that is unmatched in terms of ease-of-use and productivity. Creation and modification of the model, execution of the analysis, and checking and optimization of the design, and production of the output are all accomplished using this single interface.
The research of optimal condition for etching silicon in TMAH solution with controlled etch rate and low surface roughness is the purpose of this study. The investigation on the influence of temperature, agitation, size of etch-window, etch time on etch rate and the surface roughness were carried out. With the TMAH concentration of 20% in weight, the optimal etching conditions were as follows: temperature of about 80 – 90 oC, agitation of 150 - 200 rpm. The etch rate is controlled in range of 0.49 – 0.72 µm/min. ...
This paper presents the calculations using LITPACK models, aiming to select the restoration solution for Cua Tung beach, severely eroded in recent years. The results are just the preliminary, but they are useful to direct the optimal measures to bring the beach back to its original state serving the social and economic development in Quang Tri province. Keywords: MIKE, LITPACK, erosion, cross-sections, sediment, coastline.
1. Introduction∗ Cua Tung beach of Quang Tri province was one of the most beautiful ones, attracting many...
In ruminants, some leaf-eating animals, and some insects, defensive lyso-zymes have been adapted to become digestive enzymes, in order to digest
bacteria in the stomach. Digestive lysozyme has been reported to be resis-tant to protease and to have optimal activity at acidic pH. The structural
basis of the adaptation providing persistence of lytic activity under severe
gastric conditions remains unclear.
Photosystem II of higher plants is a multisubunit transmembrane complex
composed of a core moiety and an extensive peripheral antenna system.
The number of antenna polypeptides per core complex is modulated fol-lowing environmental conditions in order to optimize photosynthetic per-formance.
We have used the circular dichroismand infrared spectra of
a specially designed 50 protein database [Oberg, K.A.,
Ruysschaert, J.M. & Goormaghtigh, E. (2003)Protein Sci.
12, 2015–2031] in order to optimize the accuracy of
spectroscopic protein secondary structure determination
using multivariate statisticalanalysis methods. The results
demonstrate that when the proteins are carefully selected for
the diversity in their structure, no smaller subset of the
database contains the necessary information to describe the
Phytochromes are photoreceptor proteins that monitor the light environ-ment and regulate a variety of photomorphogenic responses to optimize
the growth and development of plants. Phytochromes comprise N-terminal
photosensory and C-terminal regulatory domains. They are mutually pho-toconvertible between a red-light-absorbing (Pr) and a far-red-light-absorb-ing (Pfr) form. Their interconversion by light stimuli initiates downstream
Machine learning is all about making predictions; language is full of complex rich structure. Structured prediction marries these two. However, structured prediction isn’t always enough: sometimes the world throws even more complex data at us, and we need reinforcement learning techniques.
The task of aligning corresponding phrases across two related sentences is an important component of approaches for natural language problems such as textual inference, paraphrase detection and text-to-text generation. In this work, we examine a state-of-the-art structured prediction model for the alignment task which uses a phrase-based representation and is forced to decode alignments using an approximate search approach.
HIV-1 protease is an important target for treatment of
AIDS, and efficient drugs have been developed. However,
the resistance and negative side effects of the current drugs
has necessitated the development of new compounds with
different binding patterns. In this study, nine C-terminally
duplicated HIV-1 protease inhibitors were cocrystallised
with the enzyme, the crystal structures analysed at 1.8–2.3 A˚
resolution, and the inhibitory activity of the compounds
characterized inorder toevaluate the effects of the individual
This paper introduces an indexing method based on static analysis of grammar rules and type signatures for typed feature structure grammars (TFSGs). The static analysis tries to predict at compile-time which feature paths will cause uniﬁcation failure during parsing at run-time. To support the static analysis, we introduce a new classiﬁcation of the instances of variables used in TFSGs, based on what type of structure sharing they create. The indexing actions that can be performed during parsing are also enumerated. ...