It has long been recognised that an
appreciation of the role of structure is
essential to the understanding of architecture.
It was Vitruvius, writing at the time of the
founding of the Roman Empire, who identified
the three basic components of architecture as
firmitas, utilitas and venustas and Sir Henry
Wooton, in the seventeenth century1, who
translated these as ‘firmness’, ‘commodity’ and
I will argue in this paper that the standard notions of a f f e c t e d n e s s , change-of-state and result state are too coarse-grained, and will revise and enrich substantially their content, increasing their role in a compositional aspect construal procedure. I will claim in particular that a proper theory of event structure requires that enriched result states should be lexically represented, and will base on them a computational treatment of event structure within a feature-structure-based lexicon. ...
number of books on various aspects of concrete design and detailing have
been published but this is believed to be the first comprehensive detailing
manual. The aim of this book is to cover a wide range of topics, so simplifying
and reducing the work required to prepare structural drawings and details in
reinforced, prestressed, precast and composite concrete.
The book initially provides a list of extracts from relevant codes and current
practices. Where drawings are carried out using imperial units, a conversion
table is provided to change them into SI units.
The code portion of this document covers the design and construction of structural concrete used in buildings and
where applicable in nonbuilding structures.
Among the subjects covered are: drawings and specifications; inspection; materials; durability requirements; concrete
quality, mixing, and placing; formwork; embedded pipes; construction joints; reinforcement details; analysis and
design; strength and serviceability; flexural and axial loads; shear and torsion; development and splices of reinforcement; ...
Extensive evidence confirms that creating the conditions for a deep and efficient financial
system can contribute robustly to sustained economic growth and lower poverty (e.g., see
Beck, Levine, and Loayza 2000, Honohan 2004a, and World Bank 2001a). Moreover, in
all levels of development, continued efficient and effective provision of financial services
requires that financial policies and financial system structures be adjusted as needed in
response to financial innovations and shifts in the broader macroeconomic and institu-
Để thực hiện chức năng hỗ trợ một tòa nhà ở đáp ứng với bất cứ điều gì tải có thể được áp dụng cho nó, một cấu trúc phải có bốn thuộc tính: nó phải có khả năng đạt được một trạng thái thăng bằng, nó phải được ổn định, nó phải có đầy đủ sức mạnh và nó phải có độ cứng đầy đủ. Ý nghĩa của những điều khoản này được giải thích trong chương này.
This chapter presents an overview of quantitative indicators of financial structure, devel-
opment, and soundness. It provides guidance on key system-wide and sectoral indicators,
including definitions, measurement, and usage. Key data sources for these indicators
are explained in appendix C (Data Sources for Financial Sector Assessments). Detailed
analysis and benchmarking of these indicators are discussed in chapters 3 and 4. More
detailed data requirements are presented in appendix B (Illustrative Data Questionnaires
for Comprehensive Financial Sector Assessments)....
In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support
their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are
three primary sources of finance for companies:
● a cash surplus from operating activities
● new equity funding
● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in
the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.
Synopsis by Rebecca Rohan Once you've learned to program, you run into real-world problems that require more than a programming language alone to solve. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java is a gentle immersion into the most practical ways to make data do what you want it to do. Lafore's relaxed mastery of the techniques comes through as though he's chatting with the reader over lunch, gesturing toward appealing graphics. The book starts at the very beginning with data structures and algorithms, but assumes the reader understands a language such as Java or C++.
Common engineering materials reach in many engineering applications such as
automotive or aerospace; their limits and new developments are required to fulfill
increasing demands on performance and characteristics. The properties of mate-
rials can be increased, for example, by combining different materials to achieve
better properties than a single constituent or by shaping the material or constituents
in a specific structure. Many of these new materials reveal a much more complex
behavior than traditional engineering materials due to their advanced structure or
This manual describes the inspection, evaluation, and repair of hydraulic steel structures,
including preinspection identification of critical locations (such as fracture critical members and various
connections) that require close examination. Nondestructive testing techniques that may be used during
periodic inspections or detailed structural inspections are discussed. Guidance is provided on material
testing to determine the chemistry, strength, ductility, hardness, and toughness of the base and weld metal....
The Oracle server uses many memory components, background processes, and file structures for its backup and recovery mechanism. This lesson reviews the concepts presented in the Oracle9i Database Administration Fundamentals I course, with an emphasis on backup and recovery requirements.
An Oracle instance consists of memory areas (mainly System Global Area [SGA]) and background processes, namely PMON, SMON, DBWn, LGWR, and CKPT. An instance is created during the nomount stage of the database startup after the parameter file has been read.
Statistical parsing of noun phrase (NP) structure has been hampered by a lack of goldstandard data. This is a signiﬁcant problem for CCGbank, where binary branching NP derivations are often incorrect, a result of the automatic conversion from the Penn Treebank.(N (N/N lung) (N (N/N cancer) (N deaths) ) )This structure is correct for most English NPs and is the best solution that doesn’t require manual reannotation. However, the resulting derivations often contain errors.
This paper demonstrates that generating arguments in natural language requires planning at an abstract level, and that the appropriate abstraction cannot be captured by approaches based solely upon coherence relations. An abstraction based planning system is presented which employs operators motivated by empirical study and rhetorical maxims. These operators include a subset of traditional deductive rules of inference, argumentation theoretic rules of refutation, and inductive reasoning patterns. ...
Dermaseptin S9 (Drs S9), GLRSKIWLWVLLMIWQESNKFKKM, iso-lated from frog skin, does not resemble any of the cationic and amphipathic
antimicrobial peptides identified to date, having a highly hydrophobic core
sequence flanked at either side by cationic termini.
Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide of glucose (a,a-1,1-glucosyl-glu-cose) that is essential for growth and survival of mycobacteria. These
organisms have three different biosynthetic pathways to produce trehalose,
and mutants devoid of all three pathways require exogenous trehalose in
the medium in order to grow.
Previous studies have suggested that positive feedback loops and ultrasensi-tivity are prerequisites for bistability in covalent modification cascades.
However, it was recently shown that bistability and hysteresis can also arise
solely from multisite phosphorylation.
In order to determine the amino-terminal sequence
requirements for protein N-myristoylation, site-directed
mutagenesis of the N-terminal region was performed using
tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mutants as model substrate
proteins. Subsequently, the susceptibility of thesemutants to
protein N-myristoylation was evaluated by metabolic labe-ling in anin vitrotranslation systemusing rabbit reticulocyte
lysate. A TNF mutant having the sequence MGAAAAA
AAA at its N-terminus was used as the starting sequence
to identify elements critical for protein N-myristoylation....
CD38 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as
an ectoenzyme and as a receptor. Based on the structural
similarity between CD38 and ADP-ribosyl cyclase from
Aplysia californica, it was hypothesized that CD38 is
expressed as a homodimer on the surface of cells. Indeed,
CD38 dimers have been reported, however, the structural
requirements for their stabilization on the plasma mem-brane are unknown. We demonstrate that the majority of
CD38 is assembled as noncovalently associated homo-dimers on the surface of B cells....
Duodenase is a 29-kDa serine endopeptidase that displays selective trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like substrate speciﬁcity. This enzyme has been localized to epitheliocytes of Brunner’s glands, and as described here, to mast cells within the intestinal mucosa and lungworm-infected lung, implying an important additional role in inﬂammation and tissue remodelling. In primary cultures of pulmonary artery ﬁbroblasts, duodenase induced a concentration-dependent increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation with a maximal eﬀect observed at 30 nM.