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•No restrictions on which operation can be used on the list
•No restrictions on where data can be inserted/deleted.
Unordered list(random list): Data are not in particular order.
Ordered list: data are arranged according to a key.
Stack ADTDEFINITION: A Stackof elements of type T is a finite sequence of elements of T, in which all insertions and deletions are restricted to one end, called the top. Stackis a Last In -First Out (LIFO) data structure.Basic operations:
•Construct a stack, leaving it empty.
•Top an element.
Tree whose outdegree is not restricted to 2 while retaining the general properties of binary search trees.
• Each node has m - 1 data entries and m subtree pointers.
• The key values in a subtree such that:
– = the key of the left data entry
The NMR structure of 2¢,5¢ d(GGGGCCCC) was deter-mined togain insights into the structural differences between
2¢,5¢-and 3¢,5¢-linked DNA duplexes that may be relevant
in elucidating nature’s choice of sugar-phosphate links to
encode genetic information. The oligomer assumes a duplex
with extended nucleotide repeats formed out of mostly
N-type sugar puckers. With the exception of the 5¢-terminal
guanine that assumes thesyn glycosyl conformation, all
other bases prefer theantiglycosyl conformation. Base pairs
in the duplex exhibit slide ()1.
We present two approaches for syntactic and semantic transfer based on LFG f-structures and compare the results with existing co-description and restriction operator based approaches, focusing on aspects of ambiguity preserving transfer, complex cases of syntactic structural mismatches as well as on modularity and reusability. The two transfer approaches are interfaced with an existing, implemented transfer component (Verbmobi1), by translating f-structures into a term language, and by interfacing fstructure representations with an existing semantic based transfer approach, respectively. ...
I will discuss experiments which probe the large-scale organization of mitotic chromosomes, using a combination of chemical modifi-cations and micromechanical force measurements. Restriction nucleases cause dissolution of the chromosome, indicating that DNA
itself is the contiguous structural element of the chromosome. Therefore the non-DNA (i.e., protein) components must be isolated
from one another, suggesting that the mitotic chromosome is best thought of as a network or gel of chromatin.
Finding a class of structures that is rich enough for adequate linguistic representation yet restricted enough for efﬁcient computational processing is an important problem for dependency parsing. In this paper, we present a transition system for 2-planar dependency trees – trees that can be decomposed into at most two planar graphs – and show that it can be used to implement a classiﬁer-based parser that runs in linear time and outperforms a stateof-the-art transition-based parser on four data sets from the CoNLL-X shared task. ...
The genome of the human pathogenEntamoeba histolytica, a primitive pro-tist, contains non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements called
EhLINEs. These encode reverse transcriptase and endonuclease required
for retrotransposition. The endonuclease shows sequence similarity with
bacterial restriction endonucleases.
This paper presents a predicate-argument structure analysis that simultaneously conducts zero-anaphora resolution. By adding noun phrases as candidate arguments that are not only in the sentence of the target predicate but also outside of the sentence, our analyzer identiﬁes arguments regardless of whether they appear in the sentence or not. Because we adopt discriminative models based on maximum entropy for argument identiﬁcation, we can easily add new features. We add language model scores as well as contextual features.
In Semantic Role Labeling (SRL), it is reasonable to globally assign semantic roles due to strong dependencies among arguments. Some relations between arguments signiﬁcantly characterize the structural information of argument structure. In this paper, we concentrate on thematic hierarchy that is a rank relation restricting syntactic realization of arguments. A loglinear model is proposed to accurately identify thematic rank between two arguments.
Syntactic parsing requires a ﬁne balance between expressivity and complexity, so that naturally occurring structures can be accurately parsed without compromising efﬁciency. In dependency-based parsing, several constraints have been proposed that restrict the class of permissible structures, such as projectivity, planarity, multi-planarity, well-nestedness, gap degree, and edge degree. While projectivity is generally taken to be too restrictive for natural language syntax, it is not clear which of the other proposals strikes the best balance between expressivity and complexity. ...
G r a m m a r formalisms based on the encoding of grammatical information in complex-valued feature systems enjoy some currency both in linguistics and natural-language-processing research. Such formalisms can be thought of by analogy to context-free grammars as generalizing the notion of nonterminal symbol from a finite domain of atomic elements to a possibly infinite domain of directed graph structures nf a certain sort.
User-adviser dialogues were collected in a typed Wizardof-Oz study (=man-behind-the-curtain study*). Thirty-two users had to solve simple statistics problems using an unfamiliar statistical package. Users received help on how to use the statistical package by typing utterances to what they believed was a computerized adviser. The observed limited set of users' grammatical and ungrammatical forms demonstrates the sufficiency of a very restricted grammar of English for a natural language interface to an advisory sys* tem.
We analyse the computational complexity of phonological models as they have developed over the past twenty years. The major results ate that generation and recognition are undecidable for segmental models, and that recognition is NPhard for that portion of segmental phonology subsumed by modern autosegmental models. Formal restrictions are evaluated.
The formal architecture of Lexical Functional Grammar offers a particular formal device, the structural correspondence, for modularizing the mapping between the surface forms of a language and representations of their underlying meanings. This approach works well when the structural discrepancies between form and meaning representations are finitely bounded, but there are some phenomena in natural language, e.g. adverbs in English, where this restriction does not hold.
An Abstract Stack (Stack ADT) is an abstract data type which emphasizes specific operations: Uses a explicit linear ordering, insertions and removals are performed individually, there are no restrictions on objects inserted into (pushed onto) the queue that object is designated the back of the queue,... This topic discusses the concept of a stack: Description of an Abstract Stack, list applications, implementation, example applications, standard template library.
An Abstract Queue (Queue ADT) is an abstract data type that emphasizes specific operations: Uses a explicit linear ordering, insertions and removals are performed individually, there are no restrictions on objects inserted into (pushed onto) the queue - that object is designated the back of the queue,... This topic discusses the concept of a queue: Description of an Abstract Queue, list applications, implementation, queuing theory, standard template library.
The paper proposes an empirical VAR for the UK open economy in order to measure the effects of monetary policy shocks from 1981 to 2003. The identification of the VAR structure is based on short-run restrictions that are consistent with the general implications of a New Keynesian model. The identification scheme used in the paper is successful in identifying monetary policy shocks and solving the puzzles and anomalies regarding the effects of monetary policy shocks.
This chapter introduces basic concepts needed for the study and description of morphologically
complex words. Since this is a book about the particular branch of morphology called word-
formation, we will first take a look at the notion of ‘word’. We will then turn to a first analysis of
the kinds of phenomena that fall into the domain of word-formation, before we finally discuss
how word-formation can be distinguished from the other sub-branch of morphology, inflection.