This chapter discusses the problematic nature of interfacial
sciences when constrained to the mesoscale. Interfacial
sciences are trapped between the atomistic and the three-
dimensional bulk regimes - the mesoscale. We experience a
breakdown of phenomenological descriptions used to
characterize macrosystems. Furthermore, submicrometer
systems with their fractal-like dimension cannot be adequately
described with quantum or molecular interaction theories. The
challenge of describing the mesoscale for the...
Over the past decade,
many countries have been upgrading their water
monitoring systems and their data collection
efforts, supported with new information
technologies and web‑based communication.
A review of the information demands arising
from OECD work, shows that important gaps
still remain. The quality of water data currently
available at national and international level is
insufficient to effectively support integrated water
management and water policies.
Today the term big data draws a lot of attention, but behind the hype there's a simple
story. For decades, companies have been making business decisions based on
transactional data stored in relational databases. Beyond that critical data, however, is a
potential treasure trove of non-traditional, less structured data: weblogs, social media,
email, sensors, and photographs that can be mined for useful information. Decreases in
the cost of both storage and compute power have made it feasible to collect this data -
which would have been thrown away only a few years ago.
In order to develop an in-depth understanding of the subject while at the same time reducing
the complexity of our research endeavor, we decided to distinguish three related research
questions that will be explained in more detail below. First, we were interested in the direct
influences of regulatory actors on strategy formation – more specifically, on corporate re-
source allocations. While this helped us to identify if there was an influence of regulatory
actors, the second step involved examining how strategy formation was impacted.
Hence, all else equal, one could expect global retail banks to have a preference for
subsidiarization, while global universal banks for branching.
The subsidiary structure may
work well for retail banks, as it may benefit from a local management team that is fully
accountable for the performance of an affiliate focused on local retail operations. There is a
benefit to a management team that has a deep understanding of the local market and a greater
ability to obtain local funding.
In the range of high strain rates, the mechanical behaviour of materials is characterized by an increased
strain rate sensitivity, by increasing effects of mass inertia forces and by the adiabatic character of the
For the relation between stress, strain and strain rate, empirical formulae are now mostly replaced by
material laws based on structural mechanical models, whose parameters are to be determined by adequate
systematic methods. Also special effects such as the influence of strain rate on...
Multibody simulation consists of analyzing the dynamic behavior of a system of interconnected bodies
comprised of flexible and/or rigid components. The bodies may be constrained with respect to each other
via a kinematically admissible set of constraints modeled as joints. These systems can represent an automobile,
a space structure with antenna deployment capabilities, an aircraft as an assemblage of rigid and flexible
parts, a robot with manipulator arms, and so on. In all such cases, the components may undergo large rotation,
large displacement, and finite strain effects....
CHAPTER 17 DESIGN OPTIMIZATIONAM OVERVIEW A. Ravindran
Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania
G. V. Reklaitis
School of Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana
INTRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPLICATION OF OPTIMIZATION METHODS 17.2.1 Defining the System Boundaries 17.2.2 The Performance Criterion 17.2.3 The Independent Variables 17.2.4 The System Model APPLICATIONSOF OPTIMIZATION IN ENGINEERING 17.3.1 Design Applications 17.3.2 Operations and Planning Applications 17.3.