Concrete is an ancient material of construction, ﬁrst used during the Roman Empire, which extended
from about 20 B.C. to 200 A.D. The word concrete is derived from the Roman concretus, meaning to
grow together. Although this early mixture was made with lime, cement, and a volcanic ash material
called pozzolana, concrete today is a sophisticated material to which exotic constitutents can be
added and, with computer-controlled batching, can produce a product capable of achieving 50,000
psi compressive strength....
Science and technology in general and in particular the construction of science and technology have made
a potential considerably more likely to provide the scientific foundation for
guidelines and national development policies; quickly absorb the
achievements of advanced science and technology is transferred from the outside, step by step
rose to address the practical problems the country by science and technology in place.
The code portion of this document covers the design and construction of structural concrete used in buildings and
where applicable in nonbuilding structures.
Among the subjects covered are: drawings and specifications; inspection; materials; durability requirements; concrete
quality, mixing, and placing; formwork; embedded pipes; construction joints; reinforcement details; analysis and
design; strength and serviceability; flexural and axial loads; shear and torsion; development and splices of reinforcement; ...
BS 449 was first issued in 1932 and was revised in December 1935, July 1937,
July 1948 and May 1959. It was reset and reprinted in February 1965
incorporating amendments Nos. 1 to 5 and reprinted in October 1967
incorporating amendments Nos. 6 and 7.
When a programme of Codes of Practice for Buildings was drawn up in 1942
under the aegis of the Ministry of Works, a Code of Practice for the structural use
of steel in buildings was included in a series for all types of building construction:
this was later (1948) issued as CP 113....
In this chapter I will cover how to construct the figure using some simplified methods to make the process of drawing a little easier. I will start by showing you how to build a simple structure as the basis for defining dimension and proportion. This structure will become the foundation of your figure drawings. You will then be able to use it to develop a finished figure drawing.
Drawing from the Inside Out
At the beginning of every figure drawing, the artist is faced with a daunting task in defining a subject that is painfully complex yet supremely organized. Without initially...
'Structure and Architecture' is an essential textbook for students and practitioners of architecture and structural engineering. MacDonald explains the basic principles of structure and describes the ranges of structure types in current use. Furthermore, the book links these topics directly with the activity of architectural design and criticism. An update of the first edition, 'Structure and Architecture 2ed' includes a revised opening chapter, and a new section that discusses prominent buildings constructed since the last edition was published in 1994.
This book is written for architects, engineers, and constructors who are responsible for designing and/or building formwork and temporary structures during the construction process. It is also designed to serve either as a textbook for a course in timber and formwork design or as a reference for systematic self-study of the subject.
Before writing was invented, cities in the Indus valley and in Sumer (present Iraq) had developed sophisticated masonry. The Sumerians built tall buildings seven stories high with baked clay bricks (circa 4,000 BC). They were the Biblical builders of the ill-fated tower of Babel, also built with masonry, which was a city situated 20 miles south of present-day Baghdad. Further development of masonry were brought forth by the Babylonians, Egyptians and ancient Chinese. Many of their structures are still standing.
The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Civil Engineering and Building Structures Standards Policy Committee (CSB/-) to Technical Committee CSB/27, upon which the following bodies were represented: British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd. British Railways Board British Steel Industry Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Housing and Construction Industries)
If there is a part of dollmaking I dislike, it is making the body. With most of my dolls, which begin as a set of sculpted parts, I have to do something to hook all the parts together. However, the structure while in progress just doesn't thrill me, but the process must be done, and done well, because I know that the body and the movement of the piece can make or ruin the doll as a completed and successful piece. The greatest sculpture and the most fantastic costuming will not amount to anything if they are hung on...
The use of fibre optic sensors in structural health monitoring has rapidly accelerated in recent years. By embedding fibre optic sensors in structures (e.g. buildings, bridges and pipelines) it is possible to obtain real time data on structural changes such as stress or strain. Engineers use monitoring data to detect deviations from a structure’s original design performance in order to optimise the operation, repair and maintenance of a structure over time.
Within half a century, a new branch of mathematics mathematical theory of planning-formed and flourished due to economic urgently required to implement the optimal targets: most, least, the fastest, cheapest, best, ... today, the rapid development of electronic computer engineering have made it possible to practice for design automation in many areas.
This work develops and defends a structural view of the nature of mathematics,
which is used to explain a number of striking features of mathematics
that have puzzled philosophers for centuries. It rejects the most widely
held philosophical view of mathematics (Platonism), according to which
mathematics is a science dealing with mathematical objects such as sets and
numbers—objects which are believed not to exist in the physical world.
In this tutorial the sequence analysis for construction stage analysis is outlined. The
example selected is a prestressed concrete box girder bridge (FCM) and the construction
stage analysis is performed using the Wizard”.In the construction stage analysis the above construction sequences should be
considered precisely. The construction stage analysis capability of MIDAS/Civil
comprises an activate/deactivate concept of Structure Groups, Boundary Groups, and
Load Groups. The analysis sequence of construction stage analysis for FCM is as
The rapid development of inorganic chemistry makes ever more challenging the task of providing a textbook that is contemporary and meets the needs of those who use it. We appreciate the constructive suggestions provided by students, faculty, and reviewers, and have adopted much of this advice, keeping in mind the constraints imposed by space and the scope of the book. The main emphasis in preparing this edition has been to bring it up to date while providing clarity and a variety of helpful features.
Sentiment analysis of citations in scientiﬁc papers and articles is a new and interesting problem due to the many linguistic differences between scientiﬁc texts and other genres. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic identiﬁcation of positive and negative sentiment polarity in citations to scientiﬁc papers. Using a newly constructed annotated citation sentiment corpus, we explore the effectiveness of existing and novel features, including n-grams, specialised science-speciﬁc lexical features, dependency relations, sentence splitting and negation features. ...
Cable-stayed bridges are structural systems effectively composing cables, main girders and
towers. This bridge form has a beautiful appearance and easily fits in with the surrounding
environment due to the fact that various structural systems can be created by changing the
tower shapes and cable arrangements.
Cable-stayed bridges are structures that require a high degree of technology for both design and
construction, and hence demand sophisticated structural analysis and design techniques when
compared with other types of conventional bridges.
[ Team LiB ] A.5 Class, Structure, and Interface Members Classes, structures, and interfaces can contain one or more fields, methods, properties, and events. This section discusses converting the C# syntax for each of these constructs to Visual Basic
Historically, a course on data structures has been a mainstay of most computer
science departments. Over the last 18 years, however, the focus of this course
has broadened considerably. The topic of data structures has now been subsumed
under the broader topic of abstract data types (ADTs)—the study of classes of
objects whose logical behavior is defined by a set of values and a set of operations.