Structure of signaling

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  • The transfer of genetic information from the level of the nucleic acid sequence of a gene to the level of the amino acid sequence of a protein or to the nucleotide sequence of RNA is termed gene expression. The entire process of gene expression in eucaryotes includes the following steps:

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  • b-Linked glucans such as cellulose and xyloglucan are important compo-nents of the cell walls of most dicotyledonous plants. Theseb-linked glu-cans are constantly exposed to degradation by various endo-b-glucanases from pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

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  • Due to the unavoidable nonbiological variations accompanying many experiments, it is imperative to consider a way of unravelling the functional interaction structure of a cellular network (e.g. signalling cascades or gene networks) by using the qualitative information of time-series experimental data instead of computation through the measured absolute values.

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  • The past ten years are witness to many changes in line with this objective. Trading and settlement procedures have been improved. New instruments have been introduced. Disclosure levels have been enhanced. Measures to protect investors’ interest and educate them have been initiated at least on paper. A code of corporate governance has been put in place. Steps were initiated to change the organisational structure of the stock exchanges.

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  • It has been reported that a human chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) protein, CLIC4, translocates to the nucleus in response to cellular stress, facilitated by a putative CLIC4 nuclear localization signal (NLS). The CLIC4 NLS adopts ana-helical structure in the native CLIC4 fold.

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  • The innate immune response of insects includes induced expression of genes encoding a variety of antimicrobial peptides. The signaling pathways that stimulate this gene expression have been well characterized by genetic analy-sis in Drosophila melanogaster, but are not well understood in most other insect species.

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  • 14-3-3 proteins belong to a family of conserved molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells, which play an important role in a multitude of signaling pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphoserine⁄phosphothreonine motifs in a sequence-specific manner. More than 200 14-3-3 binding partners have been found that are involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, stress responses, cell metabolism and malignant transformation.

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  • Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered membrane microdomains with a unique protein and lipid composition found on the plasma membrane of most, if not all, mammalian cells. A large number of signalling molecules are concentrated within rafts, which have been proposed to function as signalling centres capable of facilitating efficient and specific signal transduction. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the composition, structure, and dynamic nature of lipid rafts, as well as a number of different signalling path- ways that are compartmentalized within these microdomains....

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  • A fundamental role for protein–protein interactions in the organization of signal transduction pathways is evident. Anchoring, scaffolding and adap-ter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by bringing enzymes together. The cAMP signaling path-way is organized by A-kinase anchoring proteins.

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  • Elucidation of the molecular details of signal transduction through G-pro-tein coupled receptors (GPCRs) awaits the solution of high-resolution structures of the receptor species involved in passing the extracellular infor-mation across the plasma membrane. The critical challenge in this effort is the production of sufficient quantities of active and homogeneous receptor species amenable to crystallization screening.

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  • The phosphotransferase system inEscherichia coliis a transport and sen-sory system and, in this function, is one of the key players of catabolite repression. Mathematical modelling of signal transduction and gene expres-sion of the enzymes involved in the transport of carbohydrates is a promis-ing approach in biotechnology, as it offers the possibility to achieve higher production rates of desired components.

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  • The binding sequences for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and activator protein 1 have been found in the promoter region of the angiotensinogen gene. We examined whether the elements for activator protein 1 and STAT5B function in angiotensinogen gene activation induced by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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  • The conserved Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p is a key regulator of signal trans-duction and polarity in eukaryotic cells. In the yeastSaccharomyces cerevi-siae, Cdc42p promotes polarized growth through the p21-activated kinases Ste20p and Cla4p. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20p forms a com-plex with Erg4p, Cbr1p and Ncp1p, which all catalyze important steps in sterol biosynthesis.

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  • The Tat system catalyzes the transport of folded globular proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane and the chloroplast thylakoid. It recognizes cleavable signal peptides containingacritical twin-argininemotif but little isknownof the overall structure of these peptides. In this report, we have analyzed the secondary structure of the SufI signal peptide, together with those of two nonfunctional variants in which the region around the twin-arginine, RRQFI, is replaced by KKQFI or RRQAA.

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  • Signal processing is concerned with the modelling, detection, identification and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. Applications of signal processing methods include audio hifi, digital TV and radio, cellular mobile phones, voice recognition, vision, radar, sonar, geophysical exploration, medical electronics, and in general any system that is concerned with the communication or processing of information.

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  • Students learn in a number of ways and in a variety of settings. They learn through lectures, in informal study groups, or alone at their desks or in front of a computer terminal. Wherever the location, students learn most efficiently by solving problems, with frequent feedback from an instructor, following a worked-out problem as a model. Worked-out problems have a number of positive aspects. They can capture the essence of a key concept -often better than paragraphs of explanation. They provide methods for acquiring new knowledge and for evaluating its use.

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  • This book compiles recent studies on interferometry and its applications in science and technology. It is intended as an up-to-date reference of theoretical and experimental aspects of interferometry and their applications. The book is divided in two sections. The first one is an overview of different interferometry techniques and their general applications. Chapter 1 is concentrated on the classical field interferometry. This chapter describes and explains the structures of different type of fiber interferometers, and the standard methods for signal recovering....

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  • THE recent development of various methods of modulation such as PCM and PPM which exchange bandwidth for signal-to-noise ratio has intensified the interest in a general theory of communication. A basis for such a theory is contained in the important papers of Nyquist1 and Hartley2 on this subject. In the present paper we will extend the theory to include a number of new factors, in particular the effect of noise in the channel, and the savings possible due to the statistical structure of the original message and due to the nature of the final destination of the information....

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  • The fields of biological and medical physics and biomedical engineering are broad, multidisciplinary, and dynamic.They lie at the crossroads of frontier research in physics, biology, chemistry, and medicine. The Biological and Medical Physics/Biomedical Engineering series is intended to be comprehensive, covering a broad range of topics important to the study of the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Its goal is to provide scientists and engineers with textbooks, monographs, and reference works to address the growing need for information....

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  • This chapter provides a brief introduction to the theory of morphological signal processing and its applications toimage analysis andnonlinear filtering. By “morphological signal processing”we mean a broad and coherent collection of theoretical concepts, mathematical tools for signal analysis, nonlinear signal operators, design methodologies, and applications systems that are based on or related to mathematical morphology (MM), a set- and lattice-theoreticmethodology for image analysis. MM aims at quantitatively describing the geometrical structure of image objects.

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