Structure of this essay

The thiamindiphosphatedependent enzyme indolepyruvate decarboxylase catalyses the formationof indoleacetaldehyde from indolepyruvate, one step in the indolepyruvate pathway of biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole3acetic acid. The crystal structure of this enzyme fromEnterobacter cloacaehasbeendeterminedat 2.65 A˚ resolutionandrefined to a crystallographic Rfactor of 20.5% (Rfree 23.6%). The subunit of indolepyruvate decarboxylase contains three domains of opena/btopology, whichare similar in structure to that of pyruvate decarboxylase. ...
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Openness and trade liberalization are now seen almost universally as key components of the national policy cocktail required for economic growth and aggregate economic wellbeing. They are believed to have been central to the remarkable growth of industrial countries since the mid20th century and to the examples of successful economic development since around 1970. The continued existence of widespread and abject poverty, on the other hand, represents perhaps the greatest failure of the contemporary global economy and the greatest challenge it faces as we enter the 21st century.
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Most glucoamylases (a1,4dglucan glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.3) have structures consisting of both a catalytic and a starch binding domain. The structure of a glucoamylase from Saccharomycopsis fibuligeraHUT 7212 (Glu), determined a few years ago, consists of a single catalytic domain. The structure of this enzyme with the resolution extended to 1.1 A˚ and that of the enzyme–acarbose complex at 1.6 A˚ resolution are presented here.
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The crystal structure of glycerol kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis(TkGK) in a dimeric form was determined at a resolution of 2.4 A˚ . This is the first crystal structure of a hyperthermophilic glycerol kinase.
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We found a novel 52 kDa matrix glycoprotein MPP1 in the shell ofCrassostrea nippona that was unusually acidic and heavily phosphorylated. Deduced from the nucleotide sequence of 1.9 kb cDNA, which is likely to encode MPP1 with high probability, the primary structure of this protein shows a modular structure characterized by repeat sequences rich in Asp, Ser and Gly.
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The crystal structure of pyruvate decarboxylase fromKluyveromyces lactis has been determined to 2.26 A˚ resolution. Like other yeast enzymes, Kluyveromyces lactispyruvate decarboxylase is subject to allosteric substrate activation. Binding of substrate at a regulatory site induces catalytic activity.
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Báo cáo Y học: Solution structure of a hydrophobic analogue of the winter ﬂounder antifreeze protein
The solution structure of a synthetic mutant type I antifreeze protein (AFP I) was determined in aqueous solution at pH 7.0 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The mutations comprised the replacement of the four Thr residues by Val and the introduction of two additional LysGlu salt bridges. The antifreeze activity of this mutant peptide, VVVV2KE, has been previously shown to be similar to that of the wild type protein, HPLC6 (deﬁned here as TTTT).
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The solution structure of the growth factor chimera mEGF/ TGFa44250 has been determined using an extended version of the DYANA procedure for calculating structures from NMR data. The backbone fold and preferred orientation of the domains of the chimera are similar to those found in previous studies of EGF structures, and several Hbonds used as input constraints in those studies were found independently in the chimera. This shows that the modiﬁed activity of the chimera does not result from a major structural change.
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Taenia soliumis the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu⁄Zn superoxide dismutase.
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The structure of the reduced form of cytochromec6 from the mesophilic cyanobacteriumSynechococcussp. PCC 7002 has been determined at 1.2 A ˚ and refined to an Rfactor of 0.107. This protein is unique among all known cytochromesc6, owing to the presence of an unusual sevenresidue insertion, KDGSKSL(44–50), which differs from the insertion found in the recently discovered plant cytochromesc6A .
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The CII protein of bacteriophagek, which activates the synthesis of thekrepressor, plays a key role in the lysis– lysogeny switch. CII has a small in vivo halflife due to its proteolytic susceptibility, and this instability is a key component for its regulatory role. The structural basis of this instability is not known. While studying guanidine hydrochlorideassisted unfolding of CII, we found that low concentrations of the chaotrope (50–500 mM) have a considerable effect on the structure of this protein.
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We report here the first crystal structure of a stable isosteric analogue of 1,3bisphosphoDglyceric acid (1,3BPGA) bound to the catalytic domain of Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde3phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH)in which the two phosphoryl moieties interact with Arg249. This complex possibly illustrates a step of the catalytic process by which Arg249 may induce compression of the product formed, allowing its expulsion fromthe active site.
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Glycosylatedpolyenemacrolide antibiotics, as nystatins and amphotericins, are amphiphilic structures known to exert antifungal activity by disrupting the fungal cell membrane, leading to leakage of cellular materials, and cell death. This membrane disruption is strongly influenced by the presence and the exact nature of the membrane sterols.
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This paper is the ﬁrst in a series where we describe the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed Riemannian 3manifold. The key for understanding such surfaces is to understand the local structure in a ball and in particular the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 (with the ﬂat metric). This study is undertaken here and completed in [CM6]. These local results are then applied in [CM7] where we describe the general structure of ﬁxed genus surfaces in 3manifolds. There are two local models for...
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This paper is the fourth in a series where we describe the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed 3manifold. The key is to understand the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 . This was undertaken in [CM3], [CM4] and the global version of it will be completed here; see the discussion around Figure 12 for the local case and [CM15] for some more details. Our main results are Theorem 0.1 (the lamination theorem) and Theorem 0.2 (the onesided curvature estimate). ...
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Introduction 2. The strategy 3. Some preliminaries 3.1. MumfordTate groups 3.2. Variations of ZHodge structure on Shimura varieties 3.3. Representations of tori 4. Lower bounds for Galois orbits 4.2. Galois orbits and MumfordTate groups 4.3. Getting rid of G 4.4. Proof of Proposition 4.3.9 5. Images under Hecke correspondences 6. Density of Hecke orbits 7. Proof of the main result 7.3. The case where i is bounded 7.4. The case where i is not bounded 1. Introduction The aim of this article is to prove a special case of the following conjecture of Andr´ and Oort on subvarieties...
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The goal of this work is to give a precise numerical description of the K¨hler cone of a compact K¨hler manifold. Our main result states that the a a K¨hler cone depends only on the intersection form of the cohomology ring, the a Hodge structure and the homology classes of analytic cycles: if X is a compact K¨hler manifold, the K¨hler cone K of X is one of the connected components of a a the set P of real (1, 1)cohomology classes {α} which are numerically positive on analytic cycles, i.e. Y αp 0 for every irreducible analytic...
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The space of embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a 3manifold II; Multivalued graphs in disks By Tobias H. Colding and William P. Minicozzi II* 0. Introduction This paper is the second in a series where we give a description of the space of all embedded minimal surfaces of ﬁxed genus in a ﬁxed (but arbitrary) closed 3manifold. The key for understanding such surfaces is to understand the local structure in a ball and in particular the structure of an embedded minimal disk in a ball in R3 . We show here that if the curvature of such a disk...
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In the ﬁrst three parts of this series, we considered quadratic, cubic and quartic rings (i.e., rings free of ranks 2, 3, and 4 over Z) respectively, and found that various algebraic structures involving these rings could be completely parametrized by the integer orbits of an appropriate group representation on a vector space. These orbit results are summarized in Table 1.
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A basic result in the theory of holomorphic functions of several complex variables is the following special case of the work of H. Cartan on the sheaf cohomology on Stein domains ([10], or see [14] or [16] for more modern treatments). Theorem 1.1. If V is an analytic variety in a domain of holomorphy Ω and if f is a holomorphic function on V , then there is a holomorphic function g in Ω such that g = f on V . The subject of this paper concerns an addon to the structure considered in Theorem 1.1 which...
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