A mixed prefix-postfix notation for representations of the constituent structures of the expressions of natural languages is proposed, which are of limited degree of center embedding if the original expressions are noncenter-embedding. The method of constructing these representations is applicable to expressions with center embedding, and results in representations which seem to reflect the ways in which people actually parse those expressions. Both the representations and their interpretations can be computed from the expressions from left to right by finite-state devices. ...
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This book is written for marine structural engineers and naval architects, as well as mechanical
engineers and civil engineers who work on struch~ral design. The preparation of the book is
motivated by extensive use of the finite element analysis and dynamidfatigue analysis, fast paced
advances in computer and information technology, and application of risk and reliability methods.
Stack ADTDEFINITION: A Stackof elements of type T is a finite sequence of elements of T, in which all insertions and deletions are restricted to one end, called the top. Stackis a Last In -First Out (LIFO) data structure.Basic operations:
•Construct a stack, leaving it empty.
•Top an element.
We consider a new subproblem of unsupervised parsing from raw text, unsupervised partial parsing—the unsupervised version of text chunking. We show that addressing this task directly, using probabilistic ﬁnite-state methods, produces better results than relying on the local predictions of a current best unsupervised parser, Seginer’s (2007) CCL. These ﬁnite-state models are combined in a cascade to produce more general (full-sentence) constituent structures; doing so outperforms CCL by a wide margin in unlabeled PARSEVAL scores for English, German and Chinese. ...
In wide-coverage lexicalized grammars many of the elementary structures have substructures in common. This means that in conventional parsing algorithms some of the computation associated with different structures is duplicated. In this paper we describe a precompilation technique for such grammars which allows some of this computation to be shared. In our approach the elementary structures of the grammar are transformed into finite state automata which can be merged and minimised using standard algorithms, and then parsed using an automatonbased parser. ...
This paper shows how to formally characterize language learning in a finite parameter space as a Markov structure, hnportant new language learning results follow directly: explicitly calculated sample complexity learning times under different input distribution assumptions (including CHILDES database language input) and learning regimes. We also briefly describe a new way to formally model (rapid) diachronic syntax change.
Unification-based grammar formalisms use structures containing sets of features to describe linguistic objects. Although computational algorithms for unification of feature structures have been worked out in experimental research, these algcwithms become quite complicated, and a more precise description of feature structures is desirable. We have developed a model in which descriptions of feature structures can be regarded as logical formulas, and interpreted by sets of directed graphs which satisfy them.
This report describes the development of a parsing system for written Swedish and is focused on a grammar, the main component of the system, semiautomatically extracted from corpora. A cascaded, finite-state algorithm is applied to the grammar in which the input contains coarse-grained semantic class information, and the output produced reflects not only the syntactic structure of the input, but grammatical functions as well. The grammar has been tested on a variety of random samples of different text genres, achieving precision and recall of 94.62% and 91.
The Finite element approach is actually a numerical method for solving differential equations generated by theories of mechanics such as elasticity theory and strength of materials, depends heavily on the processing power of computers and is more applicable to structures of arbitrary size and complexity.
Phrase-structure grammars are an effective representation for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but are computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. An algorithm is described that computes finite-state approximations for context-free grammars and equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammar formalisms. The approximation is exact for certain contextfree grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear and right-linear context-free grammars. ...
We present a new grammatical formalism called Constraint Dependency G r a m m a r (CDG) in which every grammatical rule is given as a constraint on wordto-word modifications. CDG parsing is formalized as a constraint satisfaction problem over a finite domain so that efficient constraint-propagation algorithms can be employed to reduce structural ambiguity without generating individual parse trees. The weak generative capacity and the computational complexity of CDG parsing are also discussed.
This paper presents an application of ﬁnite state transducers weighted with feature structure descriptions, following Amtrup (2003), to the morphology of the Semitic language Tigrinya. It is shown that feature-structure weights provide an efﬁcient way of handling the templatic morphology that characterizes Semitic verb stems as well as the long-distance dependencies characterizing the complex Tigrinya verb morphotactics. A relatively complete computational implementation of Tigrinya verb morphology is described. ...
The formal architecture of Lexical Functional Grammar offers a particular formal device, the structural correspondence, for modularizing the mapping between the surface forms of a language and representations of their underlying meanings. This approach works well when the structural discrepancies between form and meaning representations are finitely bounded, but there are some phenomena in natural language, e.g. adverbs in English, where this restriction does not hold.
This chapter and the next are devoted to enumeration, where the problem is to determine the number of combinatorial configurations described by finite rules, and do so for all possible sizes. This chapter presents the following content: Symbolic method, trees and strings, powersets and multisets, compositions and partitions, substitution.
In this chapter, we examine some of the most important classes of labelled objects, including surjections, set partitions, permutations, as well as labelled graphs, trees, and mappings from a finite set into itself. Certain aspects of words can also be treated by this theory, a fact which has important consequences not only in combinatorics itself but also in probability and statistics.
A hierarchical ordering of a finite number of objects may be stored in a tree data structure. Operations on a hierarchically stored container include: Accessing the root, given an object in the container: Access the parent of the current object, find the degree of the current object, get a reference to a child, attach a new sub-tree to the current object, detach this tree from its parent.
(BQ) Part 2 book "A first course in the finite element method" has contents: Axisymmetric elements, isoparametric formulation, three dimensional stress analysis, plate bending element, heat transfer and mass transport, fluid flow, thermal stress, structural dynamics and time-dependent heat transfer.
(BQ) Part 1 book "The finite element method - A practical course abaqus" has contents: Computational modelling, introduction to mechanics for solids and structures, fundamentals for finite element method, fem for trusses, fem for beams.