Structured finite

A mixed prefixpostfix notation for representations of the constituent structures of the expressions of natural languages is proposed, which are of limited degree of center embedding if the original expressions are noncenterembedding. The method of constructing these representations is applicable to expressions with center embedding, and results in representations which seem to reflect the ways in which people actually parse those expressions. Both the representations and their interpretations can be computed from the expressions from left to right by finitestate devices. ...
4p bungio_1 03052013 11 1 Download

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional Comprehensive analysis for your structural projects.
Autodesk Robot™ Structural Analysis Professional software is a collaborative, versatile, and faster software application that can help you compete and win in the global economy. Purposebuilt for BIM, Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional calculates even your more complex models with powerful finite element automeshing, nonlinear algorithms, and a comprehensive collection of design codes to help you achieve results in minutes, not hours.
6p nguyennam129 23032013 106 26 Download

This book is written for marine structural engineers and naval architects, as well as mechanical engineers and civil engineers who work on struch~ral design. The preparation of the book is motivated by extensive use of the finite element analysis and dynamidfatigue analysis, fast paced advances in computer and information technology, and application of risk and reliability methods.
634p nhatkyvodanh 11082012 58 19 Download

In the past few decades, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed into a key indispensable technology in the modeling and simulation of various engineering systems.
0p cucdai_1 19102012 39 16 Download

Stack ADTDEFINITION: A Stackof elements of type T is a finite sequence of elements of T, in which all insertions and deletions are restricted to one end, called the top. Stackis a Last In First Out (LIFO) data structure.Basic operations: •Construct a stack, leaving it empty. •Pushan element. •Popan element. •Top an element.
31p trinh02 28012013 25 3 Download

We consider a new subproblem of unsupervised parsing from raw text, unsupervised partial parsing—the unsupervised version of text chunking. We show that addressing this task directly, using probabilistic ﬁnitestate methods, produces better results than relying on the local predictions of a current best unsupervised parser, Seginer’s (2007) CCL. These ﬁnitestate models are combined in a cascade to produce more general (fullsentence) constituent structures; doing so outperforms CCL by a wide margin in unlabeled PARSEVAL scores for English, German and Chinese. ...
10p hongdo_1 12042013 30 2 Download

In widecoverage lexicalized grammars many of the elementary structures have substructures in common. This means that in conventional parsing algorithms some of the computation associated with different structures is duplicated. In this paper we describe a precompilation technique for such grammars which allows some of this computation to be shared. In our approach the elementary structures of the grammar are transformed into finite state automata which can be merged and minimised using standard algorithms, and then parsed using an automatonbased parser. ...
7p bunrieu_1 18042013 18 2 Download

This paper shows how to formally characterize language learning in a finite parameter space as a Markov structure, hnportant new language learning results follow directly: explicitly calculated sample complexity learning times under different input distribution assumptions (including CHILDES database language input) and learning regimes. We also briefly describe a new way to formally model (rapid) diachronic syntax change.
10p bunmoc_1 20042013 17 2 Download

Unificationbased grammar formalisms use structures containing sets of features to describe linguistic objects. Although computational algorithms for unification of feature structures have been worked out in experimental research, these algcwithms become quite complicated, and a more precise description of feature structures is desirable. We have developed a model in which descriptions of feature structures can be regarded as logical formulas, and interpreted by sets of directed graphs which satisfy them.
10p bungio_1 03052013 16 2 Download

This report describes the development of a parsing system for written Swedish and is focused on a grammar, the main component of the system, semiautomatically extracted from corpora. A cascaded, finitestate algorithm is applied to the grammar in which the input contains coarsegrained semantic class information, and the output produced reflects not only the syntactic structure of the input, but grammatical functions as well. The grammar has been tested on a variety of random samples of different text genres, achieving precision and recall of 94.62% and 91.
4p bunthai_1 06052013 12 2 Download

The Finite element approach is actually a numerical method for solving differential equations generated by theories of mechanics such as elasticity theory and strength of materials, depends heavily on the processing power of computers and is more applicable to structures of arbitrary size and complexity.
6p hoccom001 27012016 6 2 Download

Phrasestructure grammars are an effective representation for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but are computationally too demanding for use as language models in realtime speech recognition. An algorithm is described that computes finitestate approximations for contextfree grammars and equivalent augmented phrasestructure grammar formalisms. The approximation is exact for certain contextfree grammars generating regular languages, including all leftlinear and rightlinear contextfree grammars. ...
10p bunmoc_1 20042013 9 1 Download

We present a new grammatical formalism called Constraint Dependency G r a m m a r (CDG) in which every grammatical rule is given as a constraint on wordtoword modifications. CDG parsing is formalized as a constraint satisfaction problem over a finite domain so that efficient constraintpropagation algorithms can be employed to reduce structural ambiguity without generating individual parse trees. The weak generative capacity and the computational complexity of CDG parsing are also discussed.
8p bungio_1 03052013 16 1 Download

This paper presents an application of ﬁnite state transducers weighted with feature structure descriptions, following Amtrup (2003), to the morphology of the Semitic language Tigrinya. It is shown that featurestructure weights provide an efﬁcient way of handling the templatic morphology that characterizes Semitic verb stems as well as the longdistance dependencies characterizing the complex Tigrinya verb morphotactics. A relatively complete computational implementation of Tigrinya verb morphology is described. ...
9p bunthai_1 06052013 9 1 Download

The formal architecture of Lexical Functional Grammar offers a particular formal device, the structural correspondence, for modularizing the mapping between the surface forms of a language and representations of their underlying meanings. This approach works well when the structural discrepancies between form and meaning representations are finitely bounded, but there are some phenomena in natural language, e.g. adverbs in English, where this restriction does not hold.
8p buncha_1 08052013 20 1 Download

This chapter and the next are devoted to enumeration, where the problem is to determine the number of combinatorial configurations described by finite rules, and do so for all possible sizes. This chapter presents the following content: Symbolic method, trees and strings, powersets and multisets, compositions and partitions, substitution.
61p allbymyself_08 22022016 8 1 Download

In this chapter, we examine some of the most important classes of labelled objects, including surjections, set partitions, permutations, as well as labelled graphs, trees, and mappings from a finite set into itself. Certain aspects of words can also be treated by this theory, a fact which has important consequences not only in combinatorics itself but also in probability and statistics.
81p allbymyself_08 22022016 3 1 Download

A hierarchical ordering of a finite number of objects may be stored in a tree data structure. Operations on a hierarchically stored container include: Accessing the root, given an object in the container: Access the parent of the current object, find the degree of the current object, get a reference to a child, attach a new subtree to the current object, detach this tree from its parent.
21p allbymyself_08 22022016 6 1 Download

A better understanding of the influence of tobacco smoke on the host response to periodontal infection has been the major concern in numerous studies whereas, limited research has been published aiming to identify the influence of tobacco smoke on the dental biofilm. Tobacco smoke has been shown to cause shifts in the microbial species that comprise dental plaque (Haffajee & Socransky 2001, Kamma et al. 1999, Shiloah et al. 2000, Umeda et al. 1998, van Winkelhoff et al. 2001, Zambon et al. 1996). In a recent study by our group (Buduneli et al.
177p pt_1669 26032012 313 100 Download

The analysis model of a structure includes nodes (joints), elements and boundary conditions. Finite elements are used in data entry, representing members of the structure for numerical analysis, and nodes define the locations of such members. Boundary conditions represent the status of connections between the structure and neighboring structures such as foundations. A structural analysis refers to mathematical simulations of a numerical analysis model of a structure.
316p muahong54 12052013 41 24 Download