This paper proposes the “Hierarchical Directed Acyclic Graph (HDAG) Kernel” for structured natural language data. The HDAG Kernel directly accepts several levels of both chunks and their relations, and then efﬁciently computes the weighed sum of the number of common attribute sequences of the HDAGs. We applied the proposed method to question classiﬁcation and sentence alignment tasks to evaluate its performance as a similarity measure and a kernel function. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the HDAG Kernel is superior to other kernel functions and baseline methods. ...
The rapidly increasing global population has dramatically increased the demands for
natural resources and has caused signiﬁcant changes in quantity and quality of natural
resources.To achieve sustainable resource management, it is essential to obtain insight-
ful guidance from emerging disciplines such as landscape ecology.This text addresses
the links between landscape ecology and natural resource management.These links are
discussed in the context of various landscape types,a diverse set of resources,and a wide
range ofmanagement issues.
If natural language had been designed by a logician, idioms would not exist.
They are a feature of discourse that frustrates any simple logical account of how
the meanings of utterances depend on the meanings of their parts and on the
syntactic relation among those parts. Idioms are transparent to native speakers,
but a course of perplexity to those who are acquiring a second language. If
someone tells me that Mrs. Thatcher has become the Queen of Scotland, I am
likely to say: "That's a tall story.
With many 'flexible' structures such as large span bridges, tall buildings, towers, cable roofs, etc., being built, the need to understand the dynamics behavior of structures has become a necessity for many engineers. The recent problems with the millinium bridge is simply another reminder. The many devastating earthquakes in many parts of the world leading to severe loss of life in densely inhabited urban areas alos has underlined the need for a fundamental understanding of structural behavior.
In engaging and conversational style, "Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science" provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms; it explores how scientists approach the question of evolution; and it illustrates the nature of science as a way of knowing about the natural world.
Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.
BOOK DESCRIPTION This book offers a highly accessible introduction to Natural Language Processing, the field that underpins a variety of language technologies, ranging from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With Natural Language Processing with Python, you’ll learn how to write Python programs to work with large collections of unstructured text. You’ll access richly-annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures.
Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological discipline.
With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, landscape
ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land
management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem management,
and conservation biology.
The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to
our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve
them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural
resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of
plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management.
It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study
communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy
Natural Operations in Differential Geometryby Ivan Kolar, Peter W. Michor, Jan SlovakPublisher: Springer 1993ISBN/ASIN: 3540562354ISBN-13: 9783540562351Number of pages: 437Description:This book tries to be a rather comprehensive textbook on all basic structures from the theory of jets which appear in different branches of differential geometry. The book begins with an introduction to differential ......
Natural Resources and Economic Development explores a key para-
dox: why is natural resource exploitation not yielding greater benefits
to the poor economies of Africa, Asia and Latin America?
Part One examines this paradox both through a historical review of
resource use and development and through examining current theories
that explain the under-performance of today’s resource-abundant
economies, and proposes a frontier expansion hypothesis as an alter-
The tension structures discussed in this book are predominantly roofing forms created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses, and continuous membranes (fabric structures). A unique feature in their design is form-finding an interactive process of defining the shape of a structure under tension. The book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces (minimum energy forms occurring in natural objects, such as soap films) in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures.
This publication has been designed to share IFAD’s
experience with a broader public. It uses examples of
instruments, processes and practices selected from IFAD’s
project portfolio. The theme of IFAD’s 2001 portfolio review
was the environment and natural resource management.
Environment and Natural Resource Management: IFAD’s
Growing Commitment draws extensively on that progress
report, which was presented at the Seventy-Second Session
of the IFAD Executive Board in April 2001.
This work develops and defends a structural view of the nature of mathematics,
which is used to explain a number of striking features of mathematics
that have puzzled philosophers for centuries. It rejects the most widely
held philosophical view of mathematics (Platonism), according to which
mathematics is a science dealing with mathematical objects such as sets and
numbers—objects which are believed not to exist in the physical world.
Today many school students are shielded from one of the most important concepts in modern science: evolution. In engaging and conversational style, "Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science" provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms
The water soluble crude polysaccharide obtained from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps militaris (CPM)
by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation was fractionated by DEAE cellulose and
Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in four polysaccharide
fractions that were termed CPMN Fr I, CPMN Fr II, CPMN Fr III, and CPMN Fr IV. Of these fractions,
CPMN Fr III was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such
as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cytokines (IL-1b and TNF-a).
The end of the 1970s saw the idea of fractal geometry spread into numerous
areas of physics. Indeed, the concept of fractal geometry, introduced by B.
Mandelbrot, provides a solid framework for the analysis of natural phenomena
in various scientific domains. As Roger Pynn wrote in Nature, “If this opinion
continues to spread, we won’t have to wait long before the study of fractals
becomes an obligatory part of the university curriculum.”